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    Beginner's Reference by APark

    Version: 1.2 | Updated: | Search Guide | Bookmark Guide

     The King of Fighters '97 Beginner's Reference v.1.2
     This Reference is designed to help beginning players learn and
     understand the basics of KoF '97 -- how to play, which Mode
     of play to choose, and so on. The Guide also features a glossary
     of terms commonly associated with KoF '97.
     --(*) Contents:--
     (I.): What is KoF '97?
     (II.): Basics: Buttons, Joystick Motions, and Some Notes
    	 About Special Move Motions in KoF '97
     (III.): Advanced Mode vs. Extra Mode
     (IV.): Game Mechanics
     (V.): Glossary of Commonly Used Terms in KoF '97
     (VI.): Credits, Version History
     (I.) What is KoF '97?
     KoF '97 is the fourth installment of SNK's King of Fighters
     fighting game series (which began in 1994 with KoF '94); a
     series with several interesting features, not the least of which
     is Team Play: instead of paying one credit and simply getting
     to play one character, KoF lets you choose a Team of three
     different characters to compete against other Teams of three!
     This year, the KoF tournament returns with a vengeance,
     featuring several new faces and plenty of old favorites. Keep
     your eye out for gameplay in two completely different Modes,
     each with its own set of options to explore.
     (II.) BASICS:
     Here is the basic control layout.:
      --(*) Joystick Key: (When Your Character is Facing to the Right):--
    		up-bk           up              up-fwd
    		O               O               O
    			\       |       /
    	bk      O       -       n       -       O       fwd
    			/       |       \
    		O               O               O
    	dwn-bk                  dwn             dwn-fwd
     Buttons: "A," "B," "C," "D" 
     KoF '97 uses the old Fatal Fury 2 button setup:
     A-Light Punch  C-Heavy Punch
     B-Light Kick   D-Heavy Kick
     CD-Knockdown Attack
     (NOTE: CD's can only be performed while jumping or
      while standing up. There is no such thing as a "low CD."
      NOTE: Standing CD's are the same, close or far, and
      are always bufferable.)
     Normal Throw-fwd or bk + C or D        
     (Special moves performed with A or C [punch buttons]
         are often written with a "P" to indicate "Punch button"
         [e.g. "qcf + P"]; B or D kick moves are likewise written
         with a "K" to indicate "Kick button" [e.g. "hcb + K"].)
     Joystick Movement:
     "up" or "u" = "up"                     "dwn" or "d" = "down"
     "fwd" or "f" = "forward"               "bk" or "b" = "back" 
     "up-fwd" or "uf"  = "up-forward"       "dwn-bk" or "db" = "down-back"
     "n" = "joystick neutral [centered]"
     "qcf" = "quarter circle forward" (dwn, dwn-fwd, fwd)
     "qcb" = "quarter circle back" (dwn, dwn-bk, bk)
     "hcf" = "half-circle forward" (bk, dwn-bk, dwn, dwn-fwd, fwd)
     "hcb" = "half-circle back" (fwd, dwn-fwd, dwn, dwn-bk, bk)
     "charge dwn, up" = "hold joystick down briefly, then move up"
     (also: "charge d, u")
     "charge bk, fwd" = "hold joystick back briefly, then move forwards" 
     (also: "charge b, f")
     "close" = "perform the move near opponent"
     "far" = "perform the move far from opponent"
     "standing" = "perform the move while your character is standing"
     "low" = "perform the move while your character is crouching"
     "jump" = "perform the move while your character is jumping"
     "high-block" = "move joystick straight back" (used to block
        most standing attacks and jumping attacks
     "low-block" = "move joystick to dwn-bk" (used to block most
        low attacks)
     --(*) A Few Notes About Special Move Motions in KoF '97:--
     Charge-Moves: A "Charge Move" is one that requires the player to
        "charge" the joystick briefly in one direction, then quickly
        move the joystick in another direction [usually the opposite]
        and press [a] button(s). An example of this is Ralf's
        "Gatling Punch," (charge bk, fwd + P).
        Note1: KoF '97, like its predecessor KoF '96, sometimes has a
    	bit of trouble detecting charge-motions -- because of this,
    	players must be fairly 'precise' about buffering charges.
    	Make sure that you have charged the move long enough,
    	or it simply will not come out as such.
        Note2: It also seems that charge-moves are more easily detected
    	when joystick diagonals (dwn-bk especially) are used to
    	charge, instead of straight directions (joystick bk or dwn).
        Note3: In KoF '97, as with KoF '96, a charge-move may not be
    	'held' at the very start of a round of play. This means
    	that if you would like to start your round with a charge
    	move, you may only start charging up the move after the
    	round begins.
        Note4: In KoF'97, as with KoF '96, a charge may not be 'held'
    	when switching the joystick from the dwn-bk to the bk
    	position. This means that if you are buffering a charge low
    	and you find you need to 'block high,' you will lose the
    	low-charge you have been buffering.
    	(There are 6 characters in KoF '97 equipped with charge-moves;
    	 they are Leona, Kim Kapwhan, Ralf, Blue Mary, Chang
    	 Koehan and Choi Bounge.)
     Manual Moves: A Manual Move is really just any special move
        that does not require a Charge to perform. Examples of
        this are Ryo's "Kohoh" (fwd, dwn, dwn-fwd + P), and Terry's
        "Burn Knuckle" (qcb + P).
        Note1: In the previous game, KoF '96, there was a troublesome
    	problem with move-detection: moves that were performed
    	using quarter-circles (i.e. qcf / qcb) came out easily
    	enough, while moves performed with half-circles
    	(i.e. hcf / hcb) would often "not come out." This year the
    	converse seems to be true: half-circle motions are extremely
    	easy to do, while quarter-circle motions seem less reliable.
        Note2: In order to deal with this problem, many KoF players
    	from around the world have sought out 'shortcuts;' easier,
    	more reliable ways to do quarter- and half- circle motions.
    	The following is a list of the most currently known shortcuts:
        'Formal' Motion             Shortcut:
         hcf                        dwn-bk -> fwd
         hcb                        dwn-fwd -> bk
         qcf                        dwn -> dwn-fwd
         qcb                        dwn -> dwn-bk
         fwd, dwn, dwn-fwd          fwd -> n -> dwn-fwd
         qcf, hcb                   dwn -> dwn-fwd -> bk
         qcb, hcf                   dwn -> dwn-bk -> fwd
         hcf x 2                    (dwn-bk -> fwd) x 2
         hcb x 2                    (dwn-fwd -> bk) x 2
     (III.): Advanced Mode vs. Extra Mode
     KoF '97 lets players play their teams in one of two Modes:
     Advanced Mode and Extra Mode.:
    		----ADVANCED MODE----
     *Roll Forwards: n + AB or fwd + AB
     *Roll Backwards: bk + AB
     *Run Forwards:
       tap fwd, hold fwd
       tap fwd, hold dwn-fwd
     *Dash Backwards: tap bk, tap bk / tap bk, hold bk
     *Normal Jump: push joystick up-bk / up / up-fwd
     *Short Hop Jump: tap joystick up-bk / up / up-fwd
     *Super Jump:
        push joystick dwn-bk -> push joystick up-fwd /
        push joystick dwn -> push joystick up /
        push joystick dwn-fwd -> push joystick up-bk
        while running forwards -> push joystick up-fwd
     *Super Short Hop:
        push joystick dwn-bk -> tap joystick up-fwd /
        push joystick dwn -> tap joystick up /
        push joystick dwn-fwd -> tap joystick up-bk
        push joystick qcf, up-fwd -> tap joystick dwn-bk
        push joystick qcb, up-bk -> tap joystick dwn-fwd
        while running forwards -> tap joystick up-fwd
     *Throw Escape: when grabbed by a normal throw,
        you may escape from it by quickly pressing
        a button (A/B/C/D)
     *May Hold up to 3 POW stocks
     *POW Explode (go intoMAX): Press ABC (costs 1 stock)
     *On MAX: characters deal 25% extra damage
     *DM's cost one stock to perform
     *SDM: on MAX, perform DM (costs 2 stocks total)
        one must be used to POW explode, the other is
        used for the DM itself
     *Dash-in Special Moves/DM: while dashing forwards,
      "cancel" the dashing animation into a special move or
      S/DM [one that does not require a charge bk, fwd
      motion; or Ryo's hcf + P Punch Dance].
     *Dash-in Normal Throw: while dashing forwards,
      stop, then immediately throw by:
      fwd, hold fwd (to dash) -> n -> bk + C/D OR
      fwd, hold fwd (to dash) -> n -> fwd + C/D
     *Standard Features:
        -MAX roll: with a stock, press AB (costs 1 stock)
        -CD Counter: with a stock, press CD (costs 1 stock)
        -Roll Recover: when knocked down, immediately
         press AB
        -Taunt: Press Start (does not affect gameplay)
     --Building up POW--
     *Advanced Mode has an orange bar called a "POW meter," and
        next to it are three 'boxes' that are initially empty. As the
        Advanced Mode Player attacks, performs special moves
        or defends, the POW meter will begin to fill up. When the
        POW meter is full, it will reset to empty, and one of the three
        'boxes' will be filled with a green dot, known commonly as a
        "POW stock" [or simply a "stock"]. As the player then continues
        to attack, perform special moves or defend, the now empty
        POW meter will begin to refill; when it does, it will empty out
        again, and the player will receive another stock in another box.
        Players may accumulate up to three stocks [one in each box].
     *With one stock, the player may:
        -Perform a "DM," or Desperation Move (also known as a "Super
         Move"): Each character has his or her own specific arsenal
         of DM's. When a character performs his/her DM, s/he emits
         a blue flash, and the entire screen darkens briefly to black.
        -"Cancel" his/her block-stun with a "MAX roll": An Advanced
         Mode player with a stock may, the next time s/he blocks an
         attack, press AB (or fwd + AB) to do MAX roll forwards, or
         bk + AB to MAX roll backwards. The player may find this
         advantageous, as s/he can use this to break out of block-stun,
         to get clear to safety or perhaps set up a counterattack.
         Be aware, however, that a MAX roll costs you one POW stock.
        -"Cancel" his/her block-stun with a "CD counter": An Advanced
         Mode player with a stock, may, the next time s/he blocks an
         attack, press CD to do a CD counter -- this is a fast, high
         priority counterattack that nearly always knocks the opponent
         down. Players should be warned that CD counters will "cost"
         one stock, and do very little damage; some players may wish
         to conserve stocks for MAX rolls to set up counterattacks
         or to perform a far more damaging S/DM later on in the matchup;
         though using a CD counter is a good way to break out of a
         multi-hitting special move, especially when you are low on life.
        -Press ABC to "POW explode": An Advanced Mode player with a
         stock may press ABC to POW explode -- after this is done, the
         player is now "on MAX," and the player's POW meter will be
         replaced for a short time with a "MAX meter" that indicates how
         much time the player has left to be on MAX. When an Advanced
         Mode character is on MAX, he/she will deliver an additional
         25% damage on all attacks(!). Advanced Players on MAX, if they
         have another stock, may also perform SDM's [see next].
     *With two [or more] stocks, the player may:
        -Press ABC to go on MAX. This 'costs' one stock, so the player
         should be on MAX with one or two stocks remaining in his boxes.
         While the player is on MAX, any DM that the player performs will
         automatically be an SDM ("Super Desperation Move") -- a stronger
         version of the DM that will typically deal more damage, deliver
         more hits and may have a few other interesting properties besides.
         When a character performs his/her DM, s/he emits a pink flash,
         and the entire screen darkens to black momentarily.
     *Additional Notes:
        -Advanced Mode features 4 types of jump: Normal Jumps,
         Short Hop Jumps, Super Jumps and Super Short Hops.
        -Throw Escapes: Advanced Mode features throw escapes; tap any
         button to escape a normal throw.
        -Roll Recovery: When knocked down, the player may immediately
         press AB to roll up from the ground quickly.
        -Taunts: Press Start to perform your character's taunt. This
         has no effect on gameplay or POW meters in either Mode.
          Advanced Mode seems to most closely resemble KoF '96's
          style of play with rolls, hops, forward-running and throw
          escapes, which suggests that it might be a better Mode for
          aggressive, dynamic players -- note in Advanced Mode you
          are unable to manually ABC charge your POW meter;
          as such, you will have to move about and attack and defend
          to build up your POW. However, in Advanced Mode you
          may fill your meter up 3 times, storing up to 3 POW
          stocks for later use. This ability to store up POW stocks
          will help a dynamic player gain access to SDM's more
          easily than in Extra Mode.
    		----EXTRA MODE----
     *Dodge: AB
     *Forward Hop:
        tap fwd, tap fwd
        tap fwd, tap dwn-fwd
     *Dash Backwards: tap bk, tap bk
        tap bk, hold bk
     *Normal Jump: push joystick up-bk / up / up-fwd
     *Super Jump: tap joystick up-bk / up / up-fwd
        push joystick dwn-bk -> tap joystick up-fwd /
        push joystick dwn -> tap joystick up 
        push joystick dwn-fwd -> tap joystick up-bk
        push joystick qcf, up-fwd /
        push joystick qcb, up-bk
     *POW meter chargeup: press and hold ABC
        (when POW meter is full, player is on MAX)
     *on MAX: characters deal 50% extra damage
     *DM's can be performed if on MAX,
        OR when the lifebar is red
     *Unlimited Use of DM's: when lifebar is red
     *SDM: at full POW and red lifebar,
        perform DM (empties POW meter)
     *Hop-Forward Special Moves/DM: while hopping forwards,
      "cancel" the last frames of "hop" animation (just as your
      character is coming to a halt) into a special move or
      S/DM [one that does not require a charge bk, fwd
      motion; or Ryo's hcf + P Punch Dance].
     *Hop-Forward Normal Throw: while hopping forwards,
      then throwing just as you recover from the hop animation:
      fwd,  fwd (to hop) -> n -> bk + C/D OR
      fwd,  fwd (to hop) -> n -> fwd + C/D
     *Standard Features:
        -MAX roll: with a stock, press AB (costs 1 stock)
        -CD Counter: with a stock, press CD (costs 1 stock)
        -Roll Recover: when knocked down, immediately
         press AB
        -Taunt: Press Start (does not affect gameplay)
     Note: Extra Mode does NOT feature throw-escapes.
     --Building up POW--
     *Extra Mode also has a "POW meter," though the Extra Mode POW
        meter is colored yellow instead of orange. Unlike Advanced
        Mode, the Extra Mode player CANNOT fill up the POW
        meter by attacking, performing special moves or defending;
        the Extra Mode POW meter can be filled only by ABC POW Chargeup.
        Once the POW meter is filled, the Extra Mode POW meter
        immediately changes into a MAX meter and the Extra Player is
        on MAX. When on MAX, all of the player's attacks will deal an
        additional 50% damage;and the player may also opt to spend
        his/her full POW meter on a DM/SDM, or a MAX roll or a
        CD counter.
     *Extra Mode DM's: Can be performed in two instances:
        -POW meter is full (when used, POW meter empties out)
        -when the lifebar is flashing red
     *Extra Mode SDM's: SDM's can only be performed if the
         player has both a full POW meter and a red lifebar.
     *With a full POW meter, Extra Mode players may also perform
        a MAX roll or CD counter; be aware that doing this
        empties the POW meter.
     *Additional Notes:
        -Extra Mode players may Recovery Roll and Taunt as well.
          Extra Mode seems to most closely resemble the play
          of KoF '94: forward-hops instead of full dashes, dodging,
          and ABC POW chargeup. Extra seems geared more towards
          less dynamic players who tend to prefer to stay in one place,
          possibly using the dodge to 'trap' their opponents by buffering
          a command throw immediately from the dodge. It has in fact
          been speculated that the most effective characters in Extra
          Mode are throw-based "grapplers." Though Extra
          Mode players don't often have access to SDM's (since they
          must have both a red lifebar and full POW), they have ready
          access to DM's by ABC POW charge-up, and can perform
          unlimited DM's when the lifebar is flashing red.
     (IV.) Game Mechanics
    --(*) The following is a general list of features of KoF '97 gameplay.:--
     1.) Guard Crush If You Block Too Much:
    	After a player forces his opponent to block several hits
    	within a short period of time, the opponent may get
    	Guard Crushed: when this happens, the blue "Guard
    	Crush" message should appear on the screen. The
    	opponent will stumble backwards for a moment, unable
    	to block. In certain cases, the Guard Crush may actually
    	be followed up immediately with another attack which
    	the opponent will be unable to block(!).
     2.) "Counter" Messages Set Up Juggles:
    	If Player A hits Player B while player B is performing a
    	special move (this is known to Tekken players as "interrupting
    	a move"), Player A's attack will count as a Counter. When
    	this happens, the red "Counter" message should appear on
    	the screen. In certain cases, if Player A used an attack
    	that knocks down to perform the counter, s/he may be
    	able to juggle Player B afterwards by immediately buffering
    	a [special] move to follow up. This sort of juggle is known
    	as a "Counter Juggle." (see Glossary) The most common
    	and easy-to-use move to set up such a juggle is with the
    	CD knockdown blow.
     3.) "Critical Hit"  Messages Stun You A Bit Longer:
    	Though the exact circumstances for performing a Critical
    	Hit are uncertain, it is known that certain characters tend
    	to get Criticals much more often (Ralf with his Ralf Kick
    	[charge bk, fwd + K]; Leona with her Moon Slasher [charge
    	dwn, up + P]; Shingo with several of his special moves).
    	When a Critical Hit occurs on a blocking opponent, the
    	opponent's guard is broken for a moment, causing the
    	opponent to stumble backwards a bit. When a Critical Hit
    	occurs on an opponent who was not blocking (i.e. s/he
    	took the hit), it causes a slightly longer hit-stun.
     4.) "Counter Criticals" Are Juggle Hits Too:
    	When a Critical Hit is performed under Counter conditions,
    	a Counter Critical may occur (the "Counter Critical"
    	message, with "Counter" in red letters and "Critical" in
    	green letters directly beneath it, should appear on the
    	screen). When this happens, the player that got the
    	Counter Critical will not only 'stun' the opponent a bit
    	longer with the hit, but s/he may also be able to Counter
    	Juggle the opponent afterwards(!).
     5.) Command Attack(s), Use 'Em If You Got 'Em:
    	Certain characters in the game have 'Command Attacks,'
    	normal move attacks that can only be performed with by
    	pressing the joystick in a certain direction and pressing
    	the button (e.g.: Joe Higashi's Ground Circle Shot
    	[fwd + B]). Of these, some command attacks may have
    	special properties; for example, Kyo's fwd + B Axe
    	Kick is an "overhead" and cannot be low-blocked.
     6.) Turn Your Command Attack Into A Chain Combo:
    	Characters [who have them] can use their command attack(s)
    	"by themselves" (i.e. do nothing before the command attack;
    	simply buffer in the command and press the button). When
    	used in this way, command attacks have different properties
    	in each case: for example, Ryo Sakazaki's Ice Pillar Smash
    	[fwd + A] is an overhead when used "by itself." However, command
    	attacks may also be "chain comboed" from bufferable normal
    	moves (e.g.: Ryo can also chain combo his standing C -> fwd + A
    	for 2 hits total[!]).
    		-Note: When a command attack is chained this way,
    		    it loses any special properties it may have had
    		    "by itself." For example, when Ryo's fwd + A
    		    is chained, it is no longer an overhead and may
    		    be blocked low.
    		-Note: When a command attack is chained, often it
    		    becomes bufferable (if it wasn't already); this
    		    can help certain characters perform even longer,
    		    more powerful combos.
     7.) Run Up And Do A Special Move:
    	In '97, every single [non-charge] special move and
    	S/DM can be "buffered" directly from a forward
    	dash (Advanced Mode) or a forward hop (Extra
    	Mode), with the exception of "charge bk, fwd + P/K"
    	moves, like Leona's "Ground Sabre," and, curiously
    	enough, Ryo's "Kyokugen Punch Dance" (hcf + P).
    	That is, while running forwards, you can "cancel" your
    	running animation immediately into a special move
    	(in Advanced Mode); or you can "cancel" the last frames
    	of "recovery" animation from your forward hop (in
    	Extra Mode). All other specials and DM's (including
    	command throws!) can be buffered directly from a
    	forward dash/hop.
     8.) Run Up And Do A Throw:
    	Advanced Mode players may cancel a forward dash,
    	then follow with a normal throw. Extra Mode characters
    	may cancel the final frames of the forward-hop animation
    	into a normal throw. For Advanced Mode:
    	fwd, hold fwd (to dash) -> n -> bk + C/D OR
    	fwd, hold fwd (to dash) -> n -> fwd + C/D
    	(Note: Releasing the joystick to the "n" position causes
    	 the character to abruptly stop his/her forward dash.
    	 Immediately cancel this "stop" into a bk + C/D
    	 or fwd + C/D throw.)
    	For Extra Mode:
    	fwd,  fwd (to hop) -> n -> bk + C/D OR
    	fwd,  fwd (to hop) -> n -> fwd + C/D
    	(Note: As soon as your character finishes the "leap"
    	 from the forward-hop, do bk + C/D or fwd + C/D
    	 to do a normal throw.)
    	(Additional Note: This technique may seem rather
    	 difficult, but is very, very useful once mastered.)
     9.) Charge Dwn While Running:
    	Forward Dashing/Hopping can be performed two
    	ways in KoF '97:
    	fwd -> fwd  OR
    	fwd -> dwn-fwd
    	This is a hold-over from KoF '96 which actually
    	works to the advantage of characters with charge-based
    	moves. By dashing/hopping using the fwd -> dwn-fwd
    	command, a character can actually dwn-charge a
    	"charge dwn, up" move using the dwn-fwd part of the
    	dash to charge. Example:
    	-Advanced Mode Ralf dashes forwards: fwd -> hold dwn-fwd
    	-After starting to dash, he player continuously holds the joystick
    	 dwn-fwd, which actually holds a dwn-charge.
    	-After dashing halfway across the screen, Ralf immediately
    	 buffers his dash (see Game Mechanics, entry 7) into his
    	 Blitzkrieg Punch (charge dwn, up + P).
     10.) Aerial Recovery:
    	Characters with special moves or S/DMs that can be
    	performed in mid-air can use those special moves to
    	"cancel" their falling animation and "recover" from being
    	hit "out of the air" by a normal (non-special) move.
    	-Mai jumps at Kyo, who hits her out of the air with his
    	 low C punch.
    	-Instead of falling right to the ground, Mai quickly
    	 performs her aerial "Musasabi No Mai" (qcb + P),
    	 which 'cancels' her falling animation into her special move.
     11.) Air-Blocking:
    	Air-blocking exists only to a limited extent in KoF '97.
    	A character may only air-block an attack if he or she
    	has jumped straight up or backwards. A player may
    	-not- air-block on a forward jump.
     12.) Reflecting Projectiles:
    	Three characters in KoF '97 (Yamazaki, Athena,
    	Chizuru) have the ability to "reflect" projectile attacks
    	back at their throwers with a "reflect" special move.
    	Note, however, that the only projectiles that can
    	be reflected in this way are the following:
    	-Joe's "Hurricane Upper" (hcf + P)
    	-King's "Venom Strike" (qcf + K)
    	-King's "Double Strike" (qcf x 2 + K)
    	-Mai's "Kachosen" (qcf + P)
    	-Iori's "Darkness Thrust" (qcf + P)
    	-Kensou's "Chokyuudan" (qcb + P)
    	-Athena's "Psycho Ball" (qcb + P)
    	-"Haohshokoken" DM [Ryo, Robert, Yuri] (fwd, hcf + P)
    	Other "shortened" projectile attacks (such as Ryo's
    	"Kooh-ken" [qcf + P] or Andy's "Hishoken" [qcb + P])
    	cannot be "reflected."
    --(*) Additional Notes About KoF '97's Game Engine:--
     1.) Command Throws Have Most Priority:
    	Command Throws (see Glossary) have the most priority of
    	any special move in the game. A command throw, when
    	executed properly, will beat anything else (normal moves,
    	special moves, non-command throw S/DM's) other than
    	another command throw!
    		Note: As with all KoF games, command throws are
    		    also combo-able from a bufferable normal(!).
     2.) Higher Jump Attacks Beat Lower Jump Attacks:
    	When characters jump at each other and attack, the one
    	who has jumped higher will nearly always win the exchange.
    	Therefore normal jumps usually beat Advanced Mode short
    	hops; and super jumps normally beat normal jumps.
     3.) CD's Aren't What They Used To Be:
    	The CD knockdown attack was both extremely fast and
    	powerful in KoF '96. For the most part, CD's have been
    	slowed down tremendously. When the CD hit does come
    	out, it is usually a fairly high-priority hit, and is
    	also bufferable. Though slow, CD's can still be used
    	to effect Counter Juggles (see Game Mechanics, entry 2).
     4.) Normal Moves Have More Priority Than They Used To:
    	In response to depowering the CD's from KoF '96, SNK
    	apparently decided to increase the priority of several
    	normal moves -- in fact normal moves seem to play
    	even more of a role in the game than ever. Experiment
    	with your favorite characters and see.
     5.) Some Of Us Have Power Cancels!:
    	Certain characters have special moves or S/DMs
    	whose animation can actually be "cancelled" immediately
    	into another special move or S/DM(!). It is important
    	to note that only certain characters have this ability,
    	and only with a certain few moves (the only characters
    	with Power Cancel moves only have one special move
    	or S/DM that may be power-cancelled).
    	-Terry performs his "Power Charge" (hcf + K) on
    	 Shingo, then power-cancels the Power Charge
    	 immediately into his Rising Tackle for a 9-hit combo.
    	-Not to be outdone, Shingo performs his SDM
    	 "Burning Shingo" (qcf x 2 + P) on Terry, then
    	 power-cancels into his "Unfinished Twilight
    	 Ride" (bk, dwn, dwn-fwd + K).
     (V.): Glossary of Commonly Used Terms in KoF '97       
     2-in-1: A combo resulting from the 'buffering' or 'cancelling'
    	of a normal move into a special move [or DM]. An
    	example of this might be Joe Higashi 'cancelling' a
    	low C into a "Slash Kick" (hcf + K) for Rush: 2.
     Abbreviation: the practice of referring to a phrase only by
    	the first letters of each word in the phrase. Many
    	special moves in KoF '97 (especially those with long
    	Japanese names) are often abbreviated when discussing
    	them (e.g. Andy Bogard's "Choureppadan" DM is
    	often referred to simply as "Andy's CRD").
     Abuse ("Abusive") : taking [unfair] advantage of a particular flaw
    	in a game; this can involve [repeated] use of overpowered
    	tactics/moves, or of flaws in the game's engine itself.
     Advanced Mode: One of the two Modes of play in KoF '97,
    	characterized by AB rolling, POW stocks, throw escapes
    	and short hops.
     Aerial: A move or attack performed while "in the air," either
    	by jumping or by getting juggled.
     Aggressive: A style of play, or strategy, that stresses offense
    	[i.e. moving towards your opponent and attacking
    	constantly; rather than sitting still and blocking] over
    	defense. (Also known as "Offensive Play")
     Air-blocking: While jumping, pull bk or dwn-bk on the joystick.
    	You will block any attack thrown at your jumping character.
    	NOTE: air-blocking may only be performed on a vertical
    	 (i.e. straight up) jump or on a backward jump. You may
    	NOT air-block while jumping forwards. (See Also: Blocking)
     Air-defense: A move that will hit a jumping attacker out of the air.
     Air-to-Air: A term used to describe a jumping move and how it
    	works against other jumping moves. An example is Terry's
    	jump B, which is excellent air-to-air defense.
     Autoguard: The ability of certain special moves to "block" other
    	attacks while being performed. Example: Terry Bogard's
    	"Rising Tackle" has an autoguard, so if an opponent tries
    	to hit Terry while he is doing the move, the Rising Tackle
    	will actually "block" the opponent's move and continue to
    	hit him. Other examples of autoguard moves include Kyo
    	Kusanagi's "Oniyaki" uppercut and Ryo Sakazaki's "Moko
    	Raijin Go" sliding punch.
     Block Damage: The [usually] small amount of damage that results
    	from blocking a special move.
     Blocking: Pulling back or dwn-bk on the joystick; this causes
    	your character to take a defensive stance and guard against
    	incoming hits. There are 3 kinds of blocking in KoF '97:
    		-high-blocking: pull bk on the joystick: this will
    		 guard against mostly all standing attacks and
    		 overheads, as well as all jumping attacks. This
    		 will -not- protect you from crouching (low) attacks.
    		-low-blocking: pull dwn-bk on the joystick: this will
    		 guard against several standing attacks and all low
    		 attacks. This will -not- protect you from overheads
    		 or jumping attacks.
    		-air-blocking: while in the air, pull bk or dwn-bk
    		 on the joystick. This will guard against any attacks
    		 thrown at you while you are in the air.
    		NOTE: Airblocking can only be performed
    		 on a vertical (straight up) or backward jump.
     Block Stun: The period of time during which a character goes
    	into his/her blocking stance (pull bk or dwn-bk on joystick).
    	Block stun may be interrupted by the blocking player with
    	a MAX roll or with a CD counter, if the player has at
    	least one POW stock [Advanced] or a full POW meter
     Bufferable: The property of a normal move to be 'buffered,' or
    	'cancelled' into a special move [or a command attack].
    	A bufferable normal move, buffered or cancelled into a
    	special move, constitutes a "2-in-1 combo." (Also known
    	as "cancellable" or "interruptable")
     Buffering: Inputting a special move (or command attack) while
    	your character is performing a 'bufferable' normal
    	move. This causes the last few frames of animation of
    	a bufferable normal move into be 'cancelled' or 'interrupted'
    	into the special move (or command attack). An example of
    	buffering might be Robert Garcia's low C into
    	"Hiensenpuu Kyaku" (hcb + K) -- you should see Robert
    	performing his low C punch, but immediately 'cancel' the
    	last frames of animation of the punch into his HSK: this is a
    	"2-in-1 combo." (Also known as "cancelling" or "2-in-1")
    	The term "buffering" is also used to describe the
    	'cancelling' of normal moves into charge-moves specials.
    	In this case, it refers to the ability of a move to provide
    	sufficient charge-time.
    	Side Definition: Bufferable: A move that is bufferable may
    	be 'cancelled' or 'interrupted' into a special move (or a
    	command attack chain combo). (Also known as
    	"cancellable," "interruptable")
     Cancelling: A reference either to a 2-in-1 combo or to "Power
    	Cancelling." Note that in Japan, the arcadegoer's
    	common term for 2-in-1 is "cancelling."
     CD: The "knockdown attack" performed by pressing buttons C + D.
    	The CD always knocks down, and is always bufferable.
    	If used as a Counter hit, buffer the CD into a special
    	move or DM immediately for a Counter juggle.
     CD Counter: A knockdown attack that costs one POW stock
    	[Advanced Mode] or full POW meter [Extra Mode] to
    	perform. While blocking your opponent's attack, press
    	CD [i.e. interrupt block-stun], though they deal very
    	little damage. CD counters are also accompanied by
    	a brief blue flash of light.
     Chain Combo: A combo in which one normal move is comboed into
    	another. Chain combos in KoF '97 can only be performed
    	by chaining a bufferable normal move into a command
    	attack. Note the difference between a Chain Combo and
    	a Link: a Chain involves interrupting the last frames of animation
    	of the first move into the second (e.g. Joe's close standing C ->
    	fwd + B); a Link involves allowing all of the frames of animation
    	of the first attack to finish, then quickly following it with
    	a second attack (e.g. Shingo's low B -> low A).
     (See Also: Command Attack, Link, Combo)
     Changeup: Switching between two [or more] alternatives from a single
    	starting point. The most obvious examples of change-ups are
    	"high-low games" that involve mixing up overheads and low
    	hits so that the opponent doesn't know which way to block.
    	In Advanced Mode, mixing up Joe Higashi's short hop jump
    	D (which hits high) and his fwd + B (which hits low) is an
    	example of a high-low "changeup."
     Character Width: A rough 'unit of measure' of horizontal distance
    	along the ground; about the width of a mid-sized character.
    	(Example: The Advanced Mode AB roll is ~ 1.5 to 2 character
    	 widths long.)
     Charge-Moves: A "Charge Move" is one that requires the player to
        hold the joystick, or "charge" it in that direction, then move
        the joystick in another direction [usually the opposite]
        and press [a] button(s) in order to perform it. An example
        of this is Leona's "Moon Slasher": "charge dwn, up + P"
        (this means: "'charge' the joystick down briefly, then move
         the joystick up and press a Punch button, A or C").
     Combo: A 'combination' of one attack 'cancelled' into another;
    	this can take the form of following a jumping hit with a
    	well-timed hit on the ground for a 'jump-in combo,' or
    	in the form of a 2-in-1 or chain. Usually the best way to tell if
    	two moves 2-in-1 combo is to watch their animation: if the last
    	frames of animation of the first move are 'cancelled into' the
    	second, the two moves are said to 'combo into' each other.
    	KoF '97 also features a Rush Meter to count up comboed hits.
     Command Attack: A normal move that can only be performed by
    	pushing the joystick in a certain single direction and
    	the appropriate button. Command attacks may be used 'by
    	themselves,' in which case they may have certain special
    	properties associated with them [e.g. Ryuji Yamazaki's
    	Downward Scratch (fwd + A) is an overhead when  used
    	'by itself']. Command attacks can also be used in chain
    	combos [i.e. bufferable normal move into command attack],
    	but when they are, they will lose any special properties
    	associated with them [e.g. the Downward Scratch will no
    	longer be an overhead]. Note that some unbufferable
    	command attacks do become bufferable when chained.
    	Note also that command attacks are treated as normal
    	moves, as they do not deal block damage.
     Counter: An attack that hits the opponent just as s/he is
    	performing a special move. On a successful Counter,
    	the "Counter" message should appear on the screen in
    	red letters. On a successful Counter with an attack that
    	knocks down, it may also be possible to follow-up
    	immediately with another attack for a "Counter Juggle."
     Counter Critical: An attack that hits the opponent just as s/he is
    	performing a special move, and is also performed under
    	Critical Hit conditions. On a succesful Counter Critical,
    	the "Counter Critical" message should appear on the
    	screen with the word "Counter" in red letters and "Critical"
    	in green letters beneath it. As with Counter hits, Critical
    	hits may allow the player to follow-up immediately with
    	another attack for a "Counter Juggle."
     Counter Juggle: This 'juggle' results from hitting the opponent
    	with a Counter (see Counter). The most reliable way to
    	perform a counter juggle is to counter your opponent's
    	special move with a CD knockdown attack [or a bufferable
    	normal that knocks down], then 'buffer,' or 'cancel' the
    	knockdown attack into a special move [in some cases counters
    	can be juggled with DM's instead!] -- if it is successful,
    	the special move follow-up should hit the opponent as
    	s/he is falling to the ground from the CD attack.
     Critical Hit: An attack that causes a slightly longer 'stun' on
    	one's opponent. If a Critical Hit is blocked, it will
    	momentarily break the opponent's guard and cause
    	him/her to stumble backwards a step; if a Critical Hit
    	connects [i.e. the opponent takes the hit], it will cause
    	a slightly longer hit-stun.
     Crossup: A jumping attack that is performed so 'deep' that it
    	actually 'crosses over' the opponent and forces him/her
    	to block in the opposite direction:
    		-Player A is standing on the left; Player B is
    		 standing on the right.
    		-Player A jumps to the right, towards Player B
    		 and performs an attack that crosses up [it
    		 hits Player B in the back of the neck/shoulder]
    		-Player B would normally pull the joystick to
    		 the right to block the attack, but since the
    		 attack was a crossup, Player B must "block the
    		 other way," by holding the joystick to the left
    		 [otherwise s/he will get hit!]
    	(Also known as "Crossover")
     DM: "Desperation Move," "Death Move," etc.
    	A DM is a move that costs one POW stock [Advanced] or
    	a full POW meter [Extra], and typically does quite a bit
    	more damage than any normal or special move. Each character
    	has his/her own specific DM's. When used on MAX [Advanced]
    	or with both a red lifebar and a full POW meter [Extra],
    	a DM becomes an SDM. DM's are always accompanied by a
    	blue flash of light and a momentary darkening of the rest
    	of the screen to black.
     Deep [hit]: A hit that connects from fairly close range. A deep
    	hit from a jump-in attack or close ground attack usually
    	allows the player to follow-up immediately with another
    	attack; a deep hit with a special move usually means
    	that all of the special move's hits will 'connect.'
     Dodge: The ability to quickly turn to the side and avoid all
    	non-throw attacks. The Dodge is only available to Extra
    	Mode players, and is performed by pressing AB. Note that
    	Extra Mode players are vulnerable to throws while dodging.
     Early: Performing a counterattack more or less just as or right after
    	your opponent has initially attacked. An example of an early
    	move is Leona's C-button "Moon Slasher" (charge dwn, up + P);
    	when done 'early' against a jumping or otherwise attacking
    	opponent, it will hit that opponent cleanly out of his/her
    	attack; if it is done late, Leona will most likely trade hits.
    	(See also: Late)
     Extra Mode: One of the two Modes of play in KoF '97,
    	characterized by super jumps, forward hops, ABC
    	POW charge-up and dodging.
     Finisher: The ending hit on a special move; usually requires an
    	extra joystick + button input. An example is Kim
    	Kapwhan's D-button "Hienzan": after performing
    	the Hienzan, you can push dwn + D to get the
    	'finisher;' an extra down-hit that ends the move.
     Glitch: A computer error that usually results in some strange
    	effect. An example is Billy Kane's "Whirlwind Fire
    	Wheel" DM: when Billy is command-thrown out of
    	this DM, he will fall down, but because of a glitch,
    	the fire wheel will not disappear; instead, it will stay
    	on screen (even after Billy has fallen) and hit the
    	command thrower multiple times(!).
     Grab: see Throw
     Grappler: A character that bases most of his/her special moves,
    	DM's and strategy on command throws.
     Ground: Term used to describe a character who is standing
    	or crouching on the ground (i.e. not jumping or falling
    	down). "Ground attacks" are either standing or low;
    	"grounded characters" are standing or crouching firmly
    	on the ground. An example: Leona's A-button
    	"Moon Slasher" will knock down a jumping opponent,
    	but will not knock down a 'grounded' opponent.
     Guard Crush: A Guard Crush occurs when a player blocks too many
    	attacks within a short period of time. On a successful
    	Guard Crush, the player will stumble backwards a bit, and
    	the "Guard Crush" message should appear on the screen in
    	blue letters. If reacted to very quickly, Guard Crushes may
    	be followed-up; most easily by performing a Guard Crush
    	with a bufferable or 'cancellable' move, then buffering
    	a special move or [DM] immediately afterwards.
     Hit Detection: Location on a sprite where a move will hit. For
    	instance, the hit detection on most low attacks is at the
    	legs and lower body of the sprite.
     Hit Stun: The brief period of time after a character has been hit;
    	this is indicated by the character's "reeling" animation.
    	While in Hit Stun, a character is essentially helpless --
    	the attacking player may effect a hit stun with a cancellable
    	move, then buffer it into a special or DM to perform a
    	2-in1 combo. Note: YOU CANNOT BE HIT BY A NORMAL
    	THROW WHILE IN HIT STUN, though you are vulnerable
    	to a command throw, if it was comboed.
     Invulnerable: Cannot be punished. Advanced Mode AB rolls have
    	a bit of invulnerability to getting hit at startup, for example,
    	though they are still vulnerable to throws.
    	(Also known as "Invincibility")
     Juggle: The act of "launching" one's opponent in the air (as
    	opposed to cleanly knocking them down), then doing a
    	follow-up to hit them as they are still in the air, falling
    	to the ground. In KoF '97, juggles can be performed
    	from Counters, from special "juggle moves" (like Andy
    	Bogard's "Dam Breaker," [hcf + P]) and from certain
    	combos in the corner. 
    	(Also known as "launcher," "float," "pop-up")
     Juggle Move: A special move that juggles the opponent in the air,
    	when connected successfully. An example of this is
    	Ryo Sakazaki's "Kyokugen Punch Dance" (hcf + P).
     Keepaway: Attempting to stay away from your opponent by
    	knocking him back from you with long-ranged moves
    	and by constantly moving away.
     Lag: A delay during which the player can do nothing [else].
    	Lag usually occurs at the beginning ("startup lag")
    	or the end ("end lag") of a normal or special move;
    	either when it is performed normally or when it is
    	successfully blocked.
     Late: Performing a counterattack "on reaction," that is,
    	well after your opponent has started his/her initial
    	attack (note difference between a Late and Early
    	counterattack). An example is Leona's C-button
    	"Moon Slasher" (charge dwn, up + P); if done 'late'
    	against an attacking opponent, Leona will most likely
    	trade hits against the attack; if done early it will
    	usually cleanly hit the opponent out of his/her attack.
     Learning Curve: An ambiguous term used to describe how
    	difficult a game is to play, or how difficult a
    	character is to use. A "steep" learning curve indicates
    	higher difficulty; a "shallow" learning curve indicates
    	lower difficulty.
     Lifebar: The bar at the top of the screen that indicates how much
    	energy, or "life" your character has left. In Extra Mode,
    	when the lifebar drops low enough and begins to flash
    	red, the player may perform unlimited DM's. In Extra
    	Mode, the lifebar is yellow; in Advanced Mode, the
    	lifebar is orange.
     Link: A combo that involves following one normal move with another.
    	Note the difference between a Chain and a Link: a chain combo
    	involves interrupting the last frames of animation of the first
    	move into the second (e.g. Mary's close standing C -> fwd + A);
    	a link combo involves allowing all of the animation of the first
    	attack to end, then quickly following it with the second attack
    	(e.g. Kim's low B -> low A).
    	(Also known as "Link Combos" or "Linkups")
     MAX: The condition occurring after a player uses a POW stock
    	to ABC POW Explode (Advanced Mode) or ABC charges
    	his/her POW meter to full (Extra Mode). On MAX, the
    	player deliver 25% extra damage and DM's become SDM's
    	(Advanced Mode); or the player delivers 50% extra damage
    	and may perform a DM. Note that an Extra Mode player
    	with full POW [and therefore on MAX] and a red lifebar
    	may perform an SDM.
     MAX Meter: The meter that replaces the POW meter when a player
    	uses a POW Stock to POW Explode (Advanced) or has
    	charged up to full POW (Extra). The MAX meter is a glowing
    	bar that gradually shortens in length, indicating how much
    	time the player has left to be on MAX. While on MAX,
    	characters flash white.
     Mode: Extra or Advanced.
     Move Detection: The ability of a game to take joystick and button
    	input and interpret it correctly; or "detect" it. For
    	example, KoF '97's Move Detection is quite good, and is
    	excellent at detecting half-circles; however, it isn't quite
    	as good at detecting quarter-circles. (See Section IV.)
     Normal Move: The 'normal' punch or kick that comes out simply
    	by pressing A, B, C, D, or CD. Most normal moves require
    	no extra joystick input to perform (other than up to do a
    	jumping normal attack, or down to do a low attack). Normal
    	moves deal no block damage. Note that command attacks
    	are also treated like normal moves, in that they also deal no
    	block damage. (Also known as "Normals")
     Option Select: Basically a situation overlapping moves that work in
    	the player's favor (as opposed to working to the player's
    	disadvantage, which is far more common). An example of
    	an option select would be Mai Shiranui's jump C or D
    	and her air-throw (any joystick direction + C or D):
    	occasionally Mai will attempt to do a jump C or D attack on
    	a jumping opponent, and she will air-throw the opponent
    	instead (usually by accident).
     Overhead: A move [usually on performed on the ground] that must be
    	blocked high and will hit opponents who are blocking low.
    	Several command attacks in KoF '97 are overheads -- certain
    	special moves are as well. (See Also: Blocking)
    	(Also known as "Top Down Attack")
     Overlap: A term used to describe two moves that have such similar
    	motions to perform that sometimes "the wrong move comes
    	out." An example of this is Yashiro's "Sledgehammer"
    	(qcb + P) and "Missle Might Bash" (hcb + P); since the
    	joystick motions for the moves are so similar, sometimes
    	players will try to do a Sledgehammer and get the Missle
    	Might Bash instead.
     Overpowered: A term used to describe a character or set of moves
    	that is clearly far more powerful than most [if not all] others.
     Palatte-Swap: The switchable color-scheme used for an object in
    	the game; usually refers to the color of a character's
    	outfit. In KoF '97, characters have two palatte-swapped
    	colors per Mode; they are selected by the player at the
    	character select screen. Choose your character with the
    	A-button to get the "default" palatte-swap, or the D-button
    	to get the "alternate" palatte-swap. An example of this might
    	be starting the game, choosing Advanced Mode, and picking
    	King with the A-button [for the burgundy palatte-swap] or
    	the D-button [for the sky blue palatte-swap].
     Poke: A long-ranged move (normal or special) that can be
    	used to "poke" at opponents from a distance.
     POW Chargeup: POW chargeup is done by pressing and holding
    	ABC in Extra Mode. POW chargeup fills the player's POW
    	meter to full; when it does, the POW meter changes to a
    	MAX meter and the player is on MAX. Note that Advanced
    	Mode players cannot POW chargeup.
     POW Explode: POW Explode requires the Advanced Mode player
    	to have at least one POW stock. It is performed by
    	pressing ABC, and afterwards, you will be on MAX and
    	deal an additional 25% damage on all attacks, and any
    	DM's performed will be SDM's instead. While on MAX,
    	players may not POW explode again. Note that Extra
    	Mode players cannot POW explode.
     POW Meter: The small meter in the lower corner of the screen
    	(yellow for Extra Mode players, orange for Advanced Mode
    	 players) that fills up either by attacking, defending
    	and/or performing special moves [Advanced Mode] or by
    	ABC Pow chargeup [Extra Mode].
     POW Stock: The green "dots" that appear in the three boxes next
    	to the Advanced Mode POW meter. POW stocks accumulate
    	every time the Advanced Mode player fills his/her meter
    	by attacking, defending and/or performing special moves.
    	POW stocks may be used to perform DM's at the cost
    	of one stock per DM; or to perform a CD counter or
    	MAX roll during block stun at the cost of one stock per
    	CD counter or MAX roll; or to ABC POW Explode at
    	the cost of one stock per explosion; and any subsequent
    	DM's performed on MAX will come out as SDM's at the
    	cost of one stock per SDM. (Also known as a "stock")
     Power Cancel: The ability to cancel the animation of certain
    	special moves or DM's into other special moves or DM's.
    	Only a certain few characters possess this ability; for
    	example, Terry Bogard can power cancel his "Power
    	Charge" (hcf + K) into a "Rising Tackle" 
    	(fwd, dwn, dwn-fwd + P).
     Pressure [Tactics]: Continuously attacking with normal/special
    	moves and throws without letting the opponent rest.
     Priority: The "priority" of a move refers to how often and how
    	many different other moves it will beat. A high priority
    	move will usually always beat a low priority move: for
    	example, Clark's "Argentina Backbreaker" (hcf + K)
    	will outprioritize Ralf's low C: the result is that the
    	Argentina Backbreaker "sucks in" Ralf, whose low C
    	gets outprioritized.
     Projectile, Full-Screen: A special move that throws a projectile
    	across the entire length of the screen. Examples of
    	these are Iori Yagami's "Yamiharai" (qcf + P) and
    	Yuri Sakazaki's "Haohshokoken" (f, hcf + P).
     Projectile, Shortened: A special move that was once a
    	full-screen projectile before KoF '96 (in which most
    	full-screen projectiles were 'shortened'). Shortened
    	Projectiles will travel a maximum of 1/2 screen distance.
    	Examples are King's "Venom Strike" (qcf + K) and
    	Terry Bogard's "Power Wave" (qcf + P).
     Pushback: Pushing your opponent away, by using fast, weak
    	normals; stronger; longer-ranged normal move pokes,
    	no-lag special moves; throws that end up pushing the
    	opponent far away; or by some other means.
     Reversal: A special move whose main purpose is to 'reverse'
    	an attack. In many cases, performing the reversal
    	causes the character to initially take some sort of
    	defensive stance and wait; if the character is attacked,
    	and the reversal is successful, the character will
    	perform a special counterattack that can only be triggered
    	via the reversal. Examples of these are Blue Mary's
    	Reversals "Reverse Facelock" & "Reverse Head
    	Buster" (qcb + B/D) and Billy's "Dragon Rave" &
    	"Dragon Buster" (qcb + B/D). Reversals are typically
    	performed with either a Kick button (B or D) or
    	with a Punch button (A or C). The "weak" version
    	(A or B) will usually reverse jumping attacks and
    	special moves, while the "strong" version (C or D)
    	will usually reverse standing [and sometimes low]
     Reversal, Offensive: An offensive reversal is different from a
    	regular reversal in that the initial part is actually an
    	attack itself (as opposed to a defensive stance);
    	so that the initial part itself will actually deal some
    	damage, and the counterattack will come out
    	automatically if the initial part 'touches' the opponent.
    	Therefore offensive reversals can actually be used
    	in combos(!). The only offensive reversals in the game
    	are possessed by Real Yashiro ["Upper Duel,"
    	fwd, dwn, dwn-fwd + P] and Real Shermie ["Shermie
    	Whip," fwd, dwn, dwn-fwd + K].
     Roll, AB: The normal roll of the Advanced Mode player;
    	fwd + AB (or just n + AB) to roll forwards and
    	bk + AB to roll backwards. Rolls have a tiny bit
    	of invulnerability at the startup and travel a preset
    	distance of about 2 to 2-1/2 character-widths
    	forward or about 1 character-width backward.
     Roll, MAX: When a player has at least one POW stock
    	(Advanced) or a full POW meter (Extra) to "spend,"
    	s/he may press AB while in block stun to interrupt
    	the block stun with a MAX roll: this will cause a
    	slightly longer-ranged roll trailing blue 'shadows'
    	behind it. Press fwd + AB (or simply n + AB) to MAX
    	roll forwards or bk + AB to MAX roll backwards.
     Roll, Recovery: When a player is knocked down by an
    	attack, the player may press AB immediately
    	to quickly roll and get up from the ground. Note
    	that both Extra and Advanced Mode players
    	may use Roll Recoveries.
     Rush Meter: A 'meter' that appears on-screen every time
    	two or more hits are landed in succession [i.e. as
    	a combo]. For instance, Yashiro Nanakase's "Missile
    	Might Bash" (hcb + P) does 4 hits, or "Rush 4."
     SDM: The "POW-ed up" version of the DM. SDM's are
    	performed on MAX after ABC POW Exploding
    	(Advanced) or with a red lifebar and a full POW
    	meter (Extra). SDM's are always accompanied by
    	a pink flash of light and a momentary darkening of
    	the rest of the screen to black.
     SNK: The video game company responsible for KoF '97
    	and it's hardware platform, the Neo Geo.
     Scrub: A player who fails to grasp the early parts of the
    	learning curve (e.g. how to perform combos, how to
    	counterthrow, etc.), no matter how many times s/he
    	tries. Scrubs tend to choose characters who are easy
    	to use and whose strengths are easy to exploit. Scrubs 
    	often tend to rely on easy-to-do, repetitious patterns,
    	such as Turtling (see Turtling).
     Shortcut: An abbreviated joystick command: for example,
    	a shortcut for an hcf is simply dwn-bk -> fwd.
    	(See section II: Manual Moves Note2)
     Short Hop: The vertically shorter but horizontally farther
    	jump of Advanced Mode. To do a short hop,
    	tap the joystick up-fwd, up or up-bk. Note that
    	short hops are unavailable in Extra Mode.
     Skill: A rather nebulous term used generally to describe how "good"
    	a player is at a game, or how difficult a character is
    	to play. My own personal criteria for 'skill' are as follows:
    	-Manual Dexterity: The ability to physically perform complex
    	 joystick + button maneuvers (like long combos). This also
    	 includes "Timing," or how well a player can time each of
    	 his/her attacks/strategies.
    	-Knowledge of One's Character: The familiarity of a player
    	 with his/her character, and how well that player can exploit
    	 his/her character's strengths and weaknesses. This includes
    	 knowledge of one's character's normal and special moves,
    	 combos and strategies.
    	-Knowledge of the Game: The familiarity of a player with
    	 the game and how it works, and how well that player
    	 can put that knowledge to use. This includes knowing how
    	 and when to throw/counterthrow, having a good general idea
    	 of different moves' priorities and so on.
    	-Strategy and "Mind Games": The ability to use one's character
    	 'intelligently,' using different tactics and strategies (instead
    	 of no-brainer patterns) to win games. This includes "Placement"
    	 or "Positioning;" the ability to locate your character
    	 strategically on the screen, and to force your opponent's
    	 character into moving into a strategically favorable location.
    	-Presence of Mind: Possessing all of the above, and the ability
    	 to remember most [if not all] of it, and use most [if not all] of
    	 it on a regular basis.
    	-Non-Scrubbiness: Independence from abusive, repetitious,
    	 no-brainer patterns (like turtling).
     Skill Character: A character believed to require a good deal of
    	"skill" to play successfully.
     Special Move: A move that [usually] requires an input
    	more complex than a single joystick direction +
    	button press. A special move may have any number
    	of different properties, the most obvious of which is
    	that when blocked, a special move will deal block
    	damage [be warned that some specials, like command
    	throws, are unblockable!]. Examples of special moves
    	are Mai Shiranui's "Ryuenbu" (qcb + P) and Yamazaki's
    	Exploding Headbutt command throw (hcf + P).
    	(Also known as "Specials")
     Sprite: The technical term for the flat ("2-D") computer-
    	generated representation of a character on the
    	screen. Sprites' sizes are roughly indicated by the
    	size of the character.
     Startup: The beginning of a move.
     Super Jump: A jump that travels farther and higher than a normal
    	jump. To do a super jump in Advanced Mode, push the
    	joystick dwn-bk, then up-fwd; or dwn then up; or dwn-fwd
    	then up-bk OR while running forwards -> tap joystick up-fwd
    	To super jump in Extra Mode, you can:
    		tap joystick up-bk / up / up-fwd
    		push joystick dwn-bk -> tap joystick up-fwd /
    		push joystick dwn -> tap joystick up /
    		push joystick dwn-fwd -> tap joystick up-bk
    		push joystick qcf, up-fwd  /
    		push joystick qcb, up-bk
    	On a super jump, your character will be covered in
    	trailing 'shadows.'
    	(Also known as "Shadow Jump," "Double Jump")
     Super Short Hop: The super short hop is a short hop that travels
    	about twice as far horizontally along the ground.
    	In Advanced Mode (only), to super short hop:
    		push joystick dwn-bk -> tap joystick up-fwd /
    		push joystick dwn -> tap joystick up /
    		push joystick dwn-fwd -> tap joystick up-bk
    		push joystick qcf, uf -> tap joystick dwn-bk
    		push joystick qcb, ub -> tap joystick dwn-fwd
    	As with super jumps, on a super short hop, your character
    	will be covered in trailing 'shadows.'
    	(Also known as "super jump short hop")
     Sweep: Any normal attack that both hits low and knocks down.
     TOD ["Touch of Death"]: A combo that both deals 50% or more
    	damage AND dizzies the opponent. A TOD is so named
    	because it can be performed on an opponent with a full
    	lifebar; take away half [or more] of that lifebar and dizzy
    	the opponent; then be performed a second time to defeat
    	the opponent's character outright.
     Taunt: An incitement to attack, formerly used to deplete charging
    	POW meters in previous KoF's. In '97, taunts to do not
    	affect POW meters or any other aspect of gameplay.
    	Taunts are performed by pressing the Start button.
     Team: The group of 3 characters you and you opponents choose
    	to play KoF '97.
     Throw [Normal]: A physical hold or toss/grapple. Normal throws are
    	completely unblockable, though they can be escaped in
    	Advanced Mode [see Throw Escape]. Throws are normally
    	performed by pressing fwd or bk + C or D while close
    	to the opponent.
     Throw, Air: A throw performed while jumping, usually by jumping
    	and pressing a joystick in a single direction and pressing
    	C or D. In KoF '97, Leona, Mai, Clark, Benimaru, Yuri,
    	and Athena are all equipped with air-throws.
    	NOTE: Air-throws cannot be escaped in any circumstance
    	 or either Mode of play.
     Throw, Command: A command throw is a special move in which the
    	character performs an unblockable special throw that has
    	no whiff animation (Shermie Spiral, hcf + P, is a good
    	example). Command throws may be comboed from normal
    	moves the same way other special moves are comboed.
    	Note that command throws are the most highly prioritized
    	moves in the game, and will outprioritize any other type
    	of move.
     Throw, Counter: The ability of a player to throw the opponent first
    	in the case of tick-throws or walk-up throws. Whenever an
    	an opponent attempts to throw the player using a jump-in/
    	walk-up tick, or a walk-up throw, the player may ALWAYS
    	throw the opponent first. The only exception to this is when
    	the thrower simply has more throw range than the player,
    	as with certain command throws.
     Throw, Running: A special move throw that automatically causes
    	the character to dash towards his/her opponent and throw
    	him/her. Running throws may be avoided by jumping up,
    	hitting the running-thrower out of the dash with a high-priority
    	normal or special move, or by counterthrowing [provided
    	you have enough range to successfully counterthrow the
    	running throw). Real Shermie, Clark, Orochi Yashiro, and
    	Goro are all equipped with running throws.
     Throw, Tick: A tick throw is a throw that is set up with a fake-out
    	attack; either a quick jab or weak kick on the ground or a
    	suspicious-looking jump-attack. The fake-out is intended to
    	trick the opponent into pulling bk or dwn-bk on the stick to
    	attempt to block an attack that is faster than that opponent
    	expects (or an attack that simply isn't coming). Tick-throws
    	are easily thwarted with a counterthrow (see Throw, Counter);
    	and in KoF '97 can often be stopped simply by doing several
    	low A's. Note that in KoF '97, as with many other fighting
    	games, characters may --NOT-- be thrown while in block-stun.
     Throw, Walk-up: The simple act of walking up to one's opponent
    	and throwing him/her straightaway. Easily preventable
    	by counterthrow, provided you have enough throw-range;
    	or simply by not sitting in one place long enough to get thrown.
     Throw Escape: An Advanced Mode feature only; when an Advanced
    	Mode player is caught by a normal throw, s/he may escape
    	from the throw by immediately tapping a button. Note that
    	Extra Mode does not have throw escapes.
     Throw-Range: The [maximum] distance from which a character can throw.
    	While most normal throws have roughly equal range, certain command
    	throws (most notably Shermie's "Shermie Spiral" and Clark's
    	"Super Argentina Backbreaker") have noticeably above-average
     Tick: "Tick" has two main definitions:
    	-Block-Tick: The [usually] small amount of block damage
    	 resulting from blocking a special move. Be aware that
    	 some special moves and S/DM's in KoF '97 actually do
    	 many block-ticks, resulting in a lot of block damage.
    	-Tick-throw: the weak or feigned attack used to set
    	 up a throw attempt.
     Trading Hits: When two characters attack each other simultaneously
    	with moves of similar priority, often each character's attack
    	will hit the other; i.e. both characters will take damage and
    	both characters will get knocked down/back. This is called
    	"trading hits."
     Turtling: A manner of playing characterized by several
    	backward jumps, backdashes and [most often] sitting
    	for long periods of time in a low-block (joystick dwn-bk).
     Underpowered: A term used to describe a character or set of
    	moves that is clearly far less powerful than most [if not
    	all] others.
     Vulnerable: Can be punished, by a normal/special move,
    	a throw, etc.
     Whiff: What happens when a move neither connects nor is
    	blocked; i.e. when a move completely misses
     Zoning: Trying to keep your character at a certain distance
    	from your opponent's character for a certain purpose.
    	For example, Yamazaki can "zone" his opponents
    	to about 1/2-screen range using his 1/2-screen
    	"Snake Arm" attacks.
    	(VI.) Credits, Version History
    	The following list of people helped contribute to
    	this guide. Many thanks!
    	-The King of Fighters Mailing List: kof-ml@umich.edu
    	 A list full of KoF enthusiasts who provided a
    	 good deal of information.
    	-Greg Kasavin: Shrike@slip.net
    	 For many valuable suggestions about terminology
    	 and general formatting; his excellent SNK website,
    	 the Mega Shock (formerly located at
    	 http://www.slip.net/~shrike) is alas, no more.
    	-Kao Megura: kmegura@yahoo.com / cgfm2@hooked.net
    	 Several move names and Japanese translations
    	 were borrowed from his excellent KoF '97 FAQ at
    	 Kao's new homepage, which can be accessed at:
    	-Tony Wedd: miku@camtech.net.au
    	 For several editting tips and suggestions. The
    	 Wedd KoF '97 Leona Guide is now up at:
    	-Matt Hall: Kensou@aol.com / Kensou@ix.netcom.com
    	 For pointing out that Chang and Choi are also
    	 charge-move characters. Matt's new edition
    	 of the KoF '97 Combo FAQ is at:
    	-Gerald "Yagyu" Joubert: gxj1717@usl.edu
    	 For pointing out several Game Mechanics and
    	 Additional Notes I completely neglected in
    	 earlier versions of the guide.
    	-Kabeer Ali: wada@aol.net.pk
    	 For the name of Joe's fwd + B command attack
    	 taken from his Joe Higashi Strategy Guide at
    	 at his new website:
    	-Joe Palanca: JGPalanca@aol.com
    	 For the alternate motions on performing a
    	 super jump, taken from his FAQ at:
    	-The UC Berkeley "Underground" Campus Arcade
    	 For actually getting KoF '97. Bravo!
    	-SNK Corp.
    	 For turning out one of the best fighting games in
    	 recent memory -- and one of the very best
    	 ever, in my opinion -- KoF '97.
    	 You can access SNK on the Web at:
    	 http://www.neogeo-usa.com (USA)
    	 http://www.neogeo.co.jp (Japan)	
    	 http://www.neogeo.com.br (Brazil)
    	-Version History-
    	V.1.20 Completed at exactly 5:29 P.M.
    	  Friday, March 20 1998
    	-Added several Game Mechanics, Additional
    	 Notes and Advanced vs Extra Mode
    	 Features I should have added long, long ago.
    	 Special thanks to Gerald "Yagyu" Joubert
    	 for most of the additions.
    	V.1.10  Completed at exactly 12:30 P.M.
    	 Tuesday, November 11 1997
    	-Added a few more Glossary terms
    	 (Running Throw, etc.)
    	V.1.00 Completed at exactly 2:00 P.M.
    	Wednesday, November 5 1997
    	-Fixed several minor typographical
    	-Added Tony Wedd and Matt Hall's
    	 names and webpages to credits [for
    	 their help with aforementioned errors]
    	-Added a few more Glossary terms
    	 (Early, Late, Trade Hits)
    	V.0.00 Completed at exactly 9:00 P.M.
    	Sunday November 2 1997.
    	-First version of Guide:
    	-Features: Introduction, Control Basics,
    	 Mode Descriptions, Game Engine
    	 Details and Glossary
    	 Please remember that this guide is intended for
    	 entertainment purposes only, and is therefore to be
    	 distributed freely--the only cost incurred should be
    	 the price of reproduction (making photocopies).
    	 It is also my property and if part or all of it is
    	 to be used in any way shape or form, proper
    	 credit must be given.
    	Thanks again, and enjoy KoF '97!
    	-EX Andy (asp@slip.net)
    	End of Guide v.1.2 Copyright 1997 Andrew S. Park aka EX Andy
    	KoF '97 and its characters are trademarks of SNK Corp, Copyright 1997

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