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    Marine Encyclopedia by phisheep

    Version: 1.0 | Updated: 02/16/10 | Search Guide | Bookmark Guide

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       (  _)( \( )(   \(  )  (  _)/ __)/ __)   /  \  / _)(  _) (  ) ( \( )  (__ \
        ) _) )  (  ) ) ))(__  ) _)\__ \\__ \  ( () )( (_  ) _) /__\  )  (   / __/
       (___)(_)\_)(___/(____)(___)(___/(___/   \__/  \__)(___)(_)(_)(_)\_)  \___)
         Endless Ocean: Adventures of the Deep (EU) released  5th February 2010
         Endless Ocean: Blue World (NA)             released 22nd February 2010 
                        M A R I N E   E N C Y C L O P E D I A  
                         I N - D E P T H   R E F E R E N C E  
                        version 1.0 October 2011 by phisheep
    Gotta stop now. Time took over. This is the final version of this FAQ, though
    I thoroughly recommend ac_helper's Creature Information Guide at:
    for finding out where all these creatures can actually be found in the game.
    Version history, credits and legal stuff are at the bottom.
    Text and Translations
    All in-game text is taken from the EU (English) version. Everything in double
    quotes and the creature names is in-game text.
    I've shown common names in French, German, Spanish and Italian - and in North
    American English where it differs from EU English.
    Where no translation is shown for a creature in a language, the name used was
    the full scientific name (which is already in the heading) - it seemed pointless
    to repeat it. This affects the Italian translation most.
    Changes for this version
    1.0 Oct 2011                        - corrected Black Pyramid/Purple Tang error
    This directory covers all species listed in the game in the order they appear
    in the Marine Encyclopedia on the table at Nineball Island.
    This is most unlikely to be the order you find them in.
    Different forms of creatures
    Some creatures appear in different forms, like male/female or adult/young/egg.
    Not all these different forms show up in the encyclopedia - usually, it seems, 
    when they might be found in different locations. So the young of fish are
    often shown separately, but young penguins never are.
    I have annotated every creature where there are other forms that can be seen.
    Some of these 'undocumented' forms do show up in the lists of creatures you
    can put in the Aquarium - but if, for example, you try to put a young Emperor
    Penguin in the Aquarium, an adult comes along with it to keep it company.
    Subsections and Indexing
    Subsections: There is one subsection for each page of the in-game Encyclopedia.
                 So, to look at creatures that appear on page 83, just search for
                 '[11.83]' and you will find them all together.
    Indexing:    <P83/2> means the second fish on page 83 of the Encyclopedia,
                 reading the left page first, left-to-right, top-to-bottom same way
                 you'd read an ordinary book.
                 That's the unique reference I'll be using to index into this guide
                 from the main FAQ. 
    [11.1]  Page 1  - Coral Reef Life
    1. <P1/1> Oriental butterflyfish - Chaetodon auripes
                  (FR) Poisson-papillon doré
                  (DE) Japanischer Halsband-Falterfisch
                  (ES) Pez mariposa oriental
                  (IT) Pesce farfalla orientale
    Length:       20 cm / 8 in
    Description: "Round, bright and yellow, this is a perfect example of a tropical
                  fish. There are thought to be around 120 varieties of this
                  species, and this one is able to live furthest north of them all.
                  It can withstand temperatures as low as 12C for a short time."
    2. <P1/2> Teardrop butterflyfish - Chaetodon unimaculatus
                  (FR) Poisson-papillon à larme
                  (DE) Tränentropfen-Falterfisch
                  (ES) Pez mariposa lágrima ámbar
                  (IT) Pesce farfalla dalla lacrima
    Length:       18 cm / 7 in
    Description: "This fish has a large circular mark on its side that can look
                  like a teardrop. It lives around coral reefs and eats coral
                  polyps using its short hair-like teeth."
    3. <P1/3> Pyramid butterflyfish - Hemitaurichthys polylepis
                  (FR) Poisson-papillon pyramide jaune
                  (DE) Gelber Pyramiden-Falterfisch
                  (ES) Pez mariposa pirámide
                  (IT) Pesce farfalla piramide
    Length:       16 cm / 6 in
    Description: "These brown, yellow and white fish gather around coral reefs and
                  feed on floating plankton."
    Trivia:      "[Separation]
                  Plankton-eating fish have a comb-like structure in their gills
                  that lets them filter out only the plankton from the water they
                  take into their mouth. This lets them feed without even
                  swallowing too much water."
    4. <P1/4> Speckled butterflyfish - Chaetodon citrinellus
                  (FR) Chétodon citron
                  (DE) Punktierter Falterfisch
                  (ES) Pez mariposa cítrica
                  (IT) Pesce farfalla limone
    Length:       13 cm / 5 in
    Description: "A pale yellow fish with dark spots. There are many similar
                  varieties of butterflyfish, which makes it hard to tell which
                  is which, but this species is easy to pick out because of its
                  unique colour."
    5. <P1/5> Purple tang - Zebrasoma xanthurum
                  (FR) Acanthure à queue jaune
                  (DE) Gelbschwanz-Segelseebader
                  (ES) Pez cirujano vela de cola amarilla
                  (IT) Pesce chirurgo a coda gialla
    Length:       22 cm / 9 in
    Description: "This fish has simple but striking colouration, deep purple with
                  yellow pectoral and tail fins. It lives in the Red Sea and around
                  East Africa, and can be the highlight of a trip for visiting
    6. <P1/6> Bluecheek butterflyfish - Chaetodon semilarvatus
                  (FR) Poisson-papillon demi-masqué
                  (DE) Masken-Falterfisch
                  (ES) Pez mariposa enmascarado
                  (IT) Pesce farfalla mascherato
    Length:       25 cm / 10 in
    Description: "This fish is yellow with a mask-like pattern around its eyes. It
                  is only found in the Red Sea and is often found around coral
                  reefs swimming in pairs."
    Notes:        Looks very like Yellow Tang, don't get caught out by thinking
                  you already have it!
    7. <P1/7> Yellow longnose butterflyfish - Forcipiger flavissimus
                  (FR) Poisson-pincette jaune
                  (DE) Röhrenmaul-Pinzettfisch
                  (ES) Pez mariposa de hocico largo
                  (IT) Pesce pinzetta
    Length:       16 cm / 6 in
    Description: "This yellow fish uses its distinctive elongated snout to get into
                  openings in coral and eat small animals hidden inside. It
                  sometimes rests in caves and crevices, and when in a cave it 
                  floats upside down with its belly pointing upwards."
    8. <P1/8> Moorish idol - Zanclus cornutus
                  (FR) Cocher blanc
                  (DE) Halfterfisch
                  (ES) Ídolo moro
                  (IT) Idolo moresco
    Length:       25 cm / 10 in
    Description: "This black and white fish is easily recognised by its long,
                  extended dorsal fin. Its scientific name, zanclus, means
                  'sickle' and refers to the distinctive shape of its dorsal
                  fin. It is very popular but also famous for its nervous
    [11.2]  Page 2  - Coral Reef Life
    9. <P2/1> King angelfish - Holacanthus passer
                  (FR) Demoiselle royale
                  (DE) Kaiser von Mexiko
                  (ES) Ángel real
                  (IT) Pesce angelo re
    Length:       25 cm / 10 in
    Description: "Adults are dark blue but young fish are bright yellow with pale
                  stripes. Their name is fitting as they have a crown-like pattern
                  on their head."
    10. <P2/2> Flame angelfish - Centropyge loricula
                  (FR) Poisson-ange flamme
                  (DE) Flammen-Zwergkaiserfisch
                  (ES) Pez ángel flama
                  (IT) Pesce angelo fiamma
    Length:       15 cm / 6 in
    Description: "As its name suggests, it is flame red. Many fish living near
                  coral reefs are brightly coloured but very few are red, which
                  makes this one special. The depth of colour varies depending on
                  where it is found."
    Notes:        Very fast-moving when there is food to be had.
    11. <P2/3> Emperor angelfish - Pomacanthus imperator
                  (FR) Poisson-ange empereur
                  (DE) Imperator-Kaiserfisch
                  (ES) Pez ángel emperador
                  (IT) Pesce angelo imperatore
    Length:       40 cm / 1 ft 4 in
    Description: "This fish is a dark blue base colour with many intricate yellow
                  lines. Young fish are a different colour from adults, with a
                  distinctive white spiral pattern. As the fish matures their
                  pattern changes into that of an adult."
    Trivia:      "[Famous in the maths world?]
                  Experiments recently confirmed that this fish's markings are a
                  Turing pattern, an organic pattern that can be expressed
                  mathematically. This theory was proposed by Alan Turing, who
                  inspired the Turing Award, an extremely prestigious prize in
                  computer science."
    Found as:     Adult and young (see below)
    12. <P2/4> Emperor angelfish (young) - Pomacanthus imperator
                  (FR) Poisson-ange empereur (jeune)
                  (DE) Imperator-Kaiserfisch (JT)
                  (ES) Pez ángel emperador (cría)
                  (IT) Pesce angelo imperatore (giovane)
                  Details as above
    13. <P2/5> Yellowbar angelfish - Pomacanthus maculosus
                  (NA) Yellowband angelfish
                  (FR) Poisson-ange à croissant
                  (DE) Arabischer Kaiserfisch
                  (ES) Pez ángel ámbar
                  (IT) Pesce imperatore blu
    Length:       30 cm / 1 ft
    Description: "This angelfish is blue with a single crescent moon-shaped yellow
                  vertical bar towards the rear on each side. It can be found in
                  the tropical waters of the western Indian Ocean, particularly in
                  the Red Sea."
    14. <P2/6> Lined surgeonfish - Acanthurus lineatus
                  (FR) Chirurgien à lignes bleues
                  (DE) Blaustreifen-Doktorfisch
                  (ES) Pez pijama
                  (IT) Pesce chirurgo lineato
    Length:       30 cm / 1 ft
    Description: "This bright yellow fish is covered in characteristic pale blue
                  lines. It is fiercely territorial and will attack any fish that
                  enters its domain."
    Notes:        Harmless to humans though.
    15. <P2/7> Powder blue tang - Acanthurus leucosternon
                  (FR) Chirurgien à poitrine blanche
                  (DE) Weißkehl-Doktorfisch
                  (ES) Pez cirujano de sombra azul
                  (IT) Acanthurus leucosternon
    Length:       25 cm / 10 in
    Description: "This fish is brightly coloured in blue, black, white and yellow.
                  It has a sting where the tail joins the body, which can cause
                  injury if touched. Native to the Indian Ocean, they are often
                  found near coral reefs."
    16. <P2/8> Yellowtail surgeonfish - Prionurus punctatus
                  (FR) Chirurgien ponctué
                  (DE) Punktierter Sägedoktorfisch
                  (ES) Cochinito
                  (IT) Pesce chirurgo puntinato
    Length:       50 cm / 1 ft 8 in
    Description: "This fish is covered with small black spots and has a bright
                  yellow tail fin. Originally found in the eastern Pacific Ocean,
                  it seems to have ridden the ocean currents to take up residence
                  in Gatama Atoll in the South Pacific."
    [11.3]  Page 3  - Coral Reef Life
    17. <P3/1> Whitemargin unicornfish - Naso annulatus
                  (FR) Nason à bordures blanches
                  (DE) Langhorn-Nasendoktor
                  (ES) Pez unicornio blanco
                  (IT) Pesce unicorno dai bordi bianchi
    Length:       60 cm / 2 ft
    Description: "Its most distinctive trait is the horn-like protuberance on its
                  head. Although this horn is not present on young fish, it
                  develops gradually as the fish grows to adulthood. Another
                  distinctive feature is the tail fin, which extends in thin
                  strands from the upper and lower sections."
    Trivia:      "[Fluid intake]
                  In order for saltwater fish to prevent dehydration, they must
                  take in salt water. They then excrete excess salt using special
                  cells known as chloride cells. Freshwater fish have few chloride
                  cells, or none at all, and so cannot survive in salt water."
    18. <P3/2> Orange-lined triggerfish - Balistapus undulatus
                  (FR) Baliste ondulé
                  (DE) Orangestreifen-Drückerfisch
                  (ES) Pez ballesta ondulado
                  (IT) Pesce balestra striato
    Length:       30 cm / 1 ft
    Description: "This fish has a beautiful, distinctive colouration; green with
                  orange lines. It is very timid and tends to hide in crevices if
                  approached or exposed to light. It raises its large dorsal fin
                  and wedges its body inside the crevice, making it hard to get
                  out. If it does this, there's nothing to do but wait for it to
                  come out again."
    19. <P3/3> Clown triggerfish - Balistoides conspicillum
                  (FR) Baliste-clown
                  (DE) Leopardendrücker
                  (ES) Pez ballesta payaso
                  (IT) Pesce balestra pagliaccio
    Length:       35 cm / 1 ft 2 in
    Description: "This fish is easily identified by its white polka dot underbelly
                  and orange puckered-up mouth. Young fish have polka dots over
                  their entire body and are popular aquarium fish. However, they
                  need to be handled with care as they have a short temper and a
                  tendency to bite with their sharp teeth."
    Trivia:      "[The art of self-defence]
                  When it feels threatened, it hides in crevices in rocks or
                  coral, then straightens its dorsal and pectoral fins to wedge
                  itself in and avoid being dragged out. This makes it hard to
                  catch, and often results in the predator giving up."
    20. <P3/4> Clown triggerfish (young) - Balistoides conspicillum
                  (FR) Baliste-clown (jeune)
                  (DE) Leopardendrücker (JT)
                  (ES) Pez ballesta payaso (cría)
                  (IT) Pesce balestra pagliaccio (giovane)
                  Details as above
    21. <P3/5> Sailfin tang - Zebrasoma veliferum
                  (FR) Chirurgien à voile
                  (DE) Pazifischer Segelflossen-Doktorfisch
                  (ES) Pez cirujano vela
                  (IT) Pesce chirurgo tigrato
    Length:       30 cm / 1 ft
    Description: "This fish is identified by its dark stripes and large, elongated
                  fins. Sailfin are actually transparent at birth, with their
                  striped pattern not yet visible. Young fish are yellowish and
                  already sport the characteristic stripes."
    22. <P3/6> Sailfin tang (young) - Zebrasoma veliferum
                  (FR) Chirurgien à voile (jeune)
                  (DE) Pazifischer Segelflossen-Doktorfisch (JT)
                  (ES) Pez cirujano vela (cría)
                  (IT) Pesce chirurgo tigrato (giovane)
                  Details as above
    23. <P3/7> Golden spadefish (young) - Platax boersii
                  (FR) Poisson-bêche doré (jeune)
                  (DE) Goldener Fledermausfisch (JT)
                  (ES) Pez murciélago de Boers (cría)
                  (IT) Pesce pipistrello di Boers (giovane)
    Length:       30 cm / 1 ft
    Description: "The young of this species have very long dorsal and anal fins
                  and a number of black rings. However, when they reach maturity,
                  their fins become shorter and the rings disappear, leaving them
                  as plain silver fish."
    Trivia:      "[What do they look like?]
                  The shape and markings of young fish may help them. imic dead
                  leaves. They sometimes swim alongside dead leaves and wood
                  floating along the surface to make themselves even harder to
    Found as:     young only
    24. <P3/8> Yellow tang - Zebrasoma flavescens
                  (FR) Chirurgien jaune
                  (DE) Zitronenflossen-Doktorfisch
                  (ES) Pez cirujano amarillo
                  (IT) Pesce chirurgo giallo
    Length:       20 cm / 8 in
    Description: "Easily identified by its vibrant yellow colouring, this fish has
                  a white spine at the base of its tail fin. Another recognisable
                  trait is the size of its dorsal fin, which is almost as large as
                  its body especially in younger fish."
    Trivia:      "[Fish-eye view]
                  The majority of fish have slightly protruding eyes on either
                  side of their body. This gives them a field of vision which
                  exceeds 300 degrees, enabling them to see both predators and
                  prey easily. In comparison, a human being's field of vision is
                  about 200 degrees."
    [11.4]  Page 4  - Coral Reef Life
    25. <P4/1> Blue tang - Paracanthurus hepatus
                  (FR) Chirurgien bleu
                  (DE) Paletten-Doktorfisch
                  (ES) Pez cirujano azul
                  (IT) Pesce chirurgo blu
    Length:       25 cm / 10 in
    Description: "A beautiful vibrant blue fish with a yellow tail fin, often seen
                  in coral reefs. Its thin body allows it to hide in crevices in
                  the reef when threatened. Although it primarily feeds on algae
                  it also has a strong liking for lettuce, which it is given in
                  some aquariums."
    26. <P4/2> Orangespine unicornfish - Naso lituratus
                  (FR) Nason à éperons orange
                  (DE) Gelbklingen-Nasendoktor
                  (ES) Pez unicornio
                  (IT) Pesce unicorno arancione
    Length:       60 cm / 2 ft
    Description: "Its dark base colour makes the vibrant orange at the base of its
                  tail quite eye-catching. Sharp spines around the tail make it
                  dangerous to handle with bare hands. Although the unicornfish
                  family often sports a horn-like protuberance, this particular
                  species does not."
    Notes:        This was called the Naso tang in Endless Ocean (NA English)
    27. <P4/3> Purple queen - Pseudanthias pascalus
                  (FR) Anthias mauve
                  (ES) Reina púrpura
                  (IT) Anthias purpureo
    Length:       15 cm / 6 in
    Description: "It is definitely worth trying to see schools of this beautiful
                  deep purple anthias near coral reefs. If you get to see one up
                  close, you will see that its mouth is more pointed than other
    28. <P4/4> Swallowtail sea perch - Anthias anthias
                  (FR) Barbier hirondelle
                  (DE) Rötling
                  (ES) Tres colas
                  (IT) Castagnola rossa
    Length:       26 cm / 10 in
    Description: "These orange and light pink fish have long pectoral fins and a
                  split tail like a swallow's. One is lovely, but the sight of
                  large groups gathered around coral or reefs is breathtaking."
    29. <P4/5> Common bigeye - Priacanthus hamrur
                  (NA) Crescent tail bigeye
                  (FR) Beauclaire lanterne
                  (DE) Großaugenbarsch
                  (ES) Catalufa espejuelo
                  (IT) Pesce occhio grosso
    Length:       35 cm / 1 ft 2 in
    Description: "These large-eyed red fish are active at night and spend the day
                  sleeping in caverns or other shadowy places. They are related to
                  the splendid alfonsino and are equally delicious."
    30. <P4/6> Samurai squirrelfish - Sargocentron ittodai
                  (FR) Poisson-écureuil samouraï
                  (ES) Pez ardilla samurái
    Length:       20 cm / 8 in
    Description: "This bright red fish covered in white lines has rigid scales that
                  are hard to peel off. Hidden away beneath them is attractive
                  white meat that tastes as good as it looks."
    31. <P4/7> Miniata grouper - Cephalopholis miniata
                  (FR) Vieille de corail
                  (DE) Juwel-Zackenbarsch
                  (ES) Cherna estrellada
                  (IT) Cernia dei coralli
    Length:       35 cm / 1 ft 2 in 
    Description: "Adults are red with blue polka dots, but young fish are a vibrant
                  orange with the polka dot pattern not yet present. Although it
                  allows its body to be cleaned by small prawns, it is highly
                  territorial and will even attack others of the same species if
                  they approach."
    32. <P4/8> European parrotfish - Sparisoma cretense
                  (FR) Poisson-perroquet de Méditerranée
                  (DE) Seepapagei
                  (ES) Loro viejo
                  (IT) Scaro
    Length:       40 cm / 1 ft 4 in
    Description: "Females are bright red with a pale grey area around the head. In
                  striking contrast, males are dull brown."
    [11.5]  Page 5  - Coral Reef Life
    33. <P5/1> Multicolourfin rainbowfish (male) - Halichoeres poecilopterus
                  (NA) Multicolorfin rainbowfish (male)            
                  (FR) Girelle melon (mâle)
                  (DE) Lippfisch (m)
                  (ES) Pez doncella (macho)
                  (IT) Pesce arcobaleno (maschio)
    Length:       30 cm / 1 ft
    Description: "Males are green while females are pale red. All of the species
                  begin life as females, but some later change sex to become male,
                  changing colour in the process. As only the larger females
                  become males, their green colouring serves to signify that this
                  change has taken place."
    34. <P5/2> Multicolourfin rainbowfish (female) - Halichoeres poecilopterus
                  (NA) Multicolorfin rainbowfish (female) 
                  (FR) Girelle melon (femelle)
                  (DE) Lippfisch (w)
                  (ES) Pez doncella (hembra)
                  (IT) Pesce arcobaleno (femmina)
                  Details as above
    35. <P5/3> Razorfish - Aeoliscus strigatus
                  (FR) Poisson-couteau
                  (DE) Rasiermesserfisch
                  (ES) Pez navaja
                  (IT) Pesce rasoio dei coralli
    Length:       15 cm / 6 in
    Description: "This fish has a strange habit ofswimming with its nose pointing
                  downwards. It has a very thin body and positions itself edge-on
                  when it meets a predator. The predator can only see a long, thin
                  rod, so this acts as a kind of camouflage. It can also swim
                  normally, faster than it can nose-down."
    36. <P5/4> Cleaner wrasse - Labroides dimidiatus
                  (FR) Labre nettoyeur
                  (DE) Putzerlippfisch
                  (ES) Lábrido limpiador azul
                  (IT) Pesce dottore
    Length:       10 cm / 4 in
    Description: "With its metallic blue tail and distinctive black stripe along
                  its side, it earns its name by clinging to other fish and
                  cleaning up food debris or parasites. Even quick-tempered fish
                  such as the moray eel do not attack and instead calmly allow
                  this fish to clean them."
    Trivia:      "[Underwater impostor!].
                  There is another fish, called the false cleanerfish, that not
                  only looks like the cleaner wrasse but moves just like it as
                  well. Other fish let their guard down when it approaches,
                  thinking they will be cleaned, but instead it takes a bite out
                  of them and rapidly escapes."
    Notes:        At long last, we get fair recognition for this poor creature
                  which appeared uncredited in Endless Ocean - the mysterious
                  215th species in that game.
    37. <P5/5> Yellowtail coris - Coris gaimard
                  (NA) Clown wrasse
                  (FR) Coris bariolé
                  (DE) Gabelschwanz-Junker
                  (ES) Coris africano
                  (IT) Pesce donzella
    Length:       40 cm / 1 ft 4 in
    Description: "This beautiful fish goes from orange at the head to dark blue at
                  its tail and is covered in pale blue specks. Young fish are red
                  with black-rimmed white stripes. The blue specks on adult fish
                  become smaller over time, and the pattern eventually disappears.
    38. <P5/6> Yellowtail coris (young) - Coris gaimard
                  (NA) Clown wrasse (young)
                  (FR) Coris bariolé (jeune)
                  (DE) Gabelschwanz-Junker (JT)
                  (ES) Coris africano (cría)
                  (IT) Pesce donzella (giovane)
                  Details as above
    [11.6]  Page 6  - Coral Reef Life
    39. <P6/1> Porcupinefish - Diodon hystrix
                  (FR) Poisson armé
                  (DE) Gepunkteter Igelfisch
                  (ES) Pez erizo
                  (IT) Pesce istrice dalle pinne puntinate
    Length:       70 cm / 2 ft 4 in
    Description: "Its rounded body and large eyes make this fish rather cute. When
                  threatened, it inflates its body by inhaling water and erects
                  sharp spines at its sides. But even then it still looks kind of
    40. <P6/2> Blackspotted pufferfish - Arothron nigropunctatus
                  (FR) Poisson-ballon à taches noires
                  (DE) Schwarzflecken-Kugelfisch
                  (ES) Pez globo enmascarado
                  (IT) Pesce palla macchiato
    Length:       25 cm / 10 in
    Description: "This round fish's face looks a little like a dog's from the front.
                  It can be grey or yellow but is always covered in black spots.
                  When startled it draws water into its stomach, inflating itself
                  and making the countless tiny spines on its body stand up.
                  Although it usually swims at a leisurely pace, it is capable of
                  short bursts of speed when it feels threatened."
    41. <P6/3> Pineconefish - Monocentris japonica
                  (FR) Poisson-ananas
                  (DE) Tannenzapfenfisch
                  (ES) Pez piña japonés
                  (IT) Pesce pigna
    Length:       15 cm / 6 in
    Description: "Its name comes from the large hard scales covering its body,
                  making it look like a pinecone. It glows at night, but the
                  light comes from bacteria living inside the fish, not from the
                  fish itself."
    42. <P6/4> Bicolour parrotfish (young) - Bolbometopon bicolor
                  (NA) Bicolor parrotfish
                  (FR) Poisson-perroquet bicolore (jeune)
                  (DE) Masken-Papageifisch (JT)
                  (ES) Pez loro de manchas rojas (cría)
                  (IT) Pesce pappagallo bicolore (giovane)
                  Details as below
    43. <P6/5> Bicolour parrotfish - Bolbometopon bicolor
                  (NA) Bicolor parrotfish
                  (FR) Poisson-perroquet bicolore
                  (DE) Masken-Papageifisch
                  (ES) Pez loro de manchas rojas
                  (IT) Pesce pappagallo bicolore
    Length:       90 cm / 3 ft
    Description: "This fish's teeth come together in a shape that resembles a
                  parrot's beak. Though adult fish have very striking faces, it is
                  the adorable young fish that are most popular with divers."
                  (the young are half-orange, half-white) 
    Trivia:      "[A surprising connection]
                  Parrotfish feed on algae which cling to coral, nibbling the
                  entire coral off using their strong teeth. Then, using the teeth
                  at the rear of their mouth to grind, they eat only the algae and
                  excrete the fine white powder that remains after grinding up the
                  coral. The excreted coral gradually builds up and, over many
                  years, the area surrounding the coral reef becomes covered with
                  pure white sand."
    Notes:        A striking example of the upgraded graphics in this game is that
                  you can see both colours on this fish in the adult form. 
    [11.7]  Page 7  - Coral Reef Life
    44. <P7/1> Bower's parrotfish - Scarus bowersi
                  (FR) Poisson-perroquet de Bower
                  (DE) Bowers Papageifisch
                  (ES) Pez papagallo de Bowers
                  (IT) Pesce pappagallo di Bower
    Length:       35 cm / 1 ft 2 in
    Description: "Green with an orange pattern spread all over, this fish certainly
                  gives the impression of coming from the southern seas. It covers
                  itself in a mucous membrane when sleeping, which is thought to
                  protect it from predators by concealing its odour."
    45. <P7/2> Ornate wrasse - Thalassoma pavo
                  (FR) Girelle paon
                  (DE) Meerpfau
                  (ES) Pez verde
                  (IT) Donzella pavonina
    Length:       25 cm / 10 in
    Description: "This fascinating fish is a mix of green, blue, orange and other
                  colours. It is a member of the labridae family, which contains
                  many brightly coloured fish."
    46. <P7/3> Luna lionfish - Pterois lunulata
                  (FR) Poisson-scorpion
                  (DE) Japanischer Feuerfisch
                  (ES) Pez león
                  (IT) Pesce leone
    Length:       25 cm / 10 in
    Description: "Large, long dorsal and pectoral fins let this fish move
                  gracefully through the water. However, these fins are poisonous
                  and extremely dangerous even if brushed against."
    Trivia:      "[Highly poisonous]
                  When the luna lionfish feels threatened, it erects its fins and
                  moves towards its opponent to intimidate it. Needlessly
                  frightening this creature can result in being stung by a poisoned
                  fin, followed by extreme pain and an inflamed wound."
    Notes:        It is poisonous in the game as well - the only fish that can do
                  you damage by merely touching it. Take care - it does the
                  videogame equivalent of hurting a lot.
    47. <P7/4> Bigeye trevally - Caranx sexfasciatus
                  (FR) Carangue vorace
                  (DE) Großaugen-Stachelmakrele
                  (ES) Jurel ojón
                  (IT) Carango occhio grosso
    Length:       80 cm / 2 ft 3 in
    Description: "Normally shiny silver, males turn black during the mating season
                  and young fish are gold or silver with six dark lines. It can
                  live in areas where salt and fresh water mix, and smaller fish
                  have been known to swim upstream where the river temperature is
                  similar to that of the sea and there is plenty of food."
    48. <P7/5> Blackfin barracuda - Sphyraena qenie
                  (FR) Barracuda à nageoires noires
                  (DE) Dunkelflossen-Barrakuda
                  (ES) Barracuda de aletas negras
                  (IT) Barracuda pinna nera
    Length:       1 m / 3 ft 3 in
    Description: "Pale silver with numerous dark stripes, this fish has a
                  distinctive high ridge in the middle of its caudal fin. It forms
                  enormous schools where countless numbers of fish gather together
                  and form huge circles or spirals depending on the currents."
    [11.8]  Page 8  - Small Marine Life
    49. <P8/1> False clown anemonefish - Amphiprion ocellaris
                  (FR) Poisson-clown à trois bandes
                  (DE) Falscher Clown-Anemonenfisch
                  (ES) Pez payaso
                  (IT) Pesce pagliaccio occidentale
    Length:       8 cm / 3 in
    Description: "This jewel of the sea is easily identified by its distinctive
                  bright orange and white pattern. A special covering on the surface
                  of its body stops sea anemones attacking it, so if it is
                  threatened by another fish it hides amongst these anemones for
    Trivia:      "[The downside to popularity]
                  Its beauty and lovable mannerisms have made it especially popular
                  as an aquarium fish. However, this has caused disastrous
                  overfishing by aquarium enthusiasts."
    50. <P8/2> Yellowtail clownfish - Amphiprion clarkii
                  (FR) Poisson-clown de Clark
                  (DE) Clarks-Anemonenfisch
                  (ES) Pez payaso cola amarilla
                  (IT) Pesce pagliaccio di Clark
    Length:       14 cm / 6 in
    Description: "Easily recognised by the white lines on its orange and brown body.
                  Clownfish are known for forming symbiotic relationships with sea
                  anemones, and this species usually chooses anemones which grow on
    Trivia:      "[Like parent and child]
                  An adult fish and many young may form a symbiotic relationship
                  with the same sea anemone, making it look like a parent with
                  children, but the fish are often not related at all. Young fish
                  float near the surface for a short time after hatching and are
                  swept away by currents, so by the time they are living with an
                  anemone they are usually far away from their parents."
    51. <P8/3> Tomato clownfish - Amphiprion frenatus
                  (FR) Poisson-clown rouge
                  (DE) Weißbinden-Glühkohlen-Anemonenfisch
                  (ES) Pez payaso rojo
                  (IT) Pesce pagliaccio a una striscia
    Length:       14 cm / 6 in
    Description: "Adult males are orange with a pale blue line on the head, females
                  are darker in colour and young fish are marked with two or three
                  white lines. It forms a symbiotic relationship with purple sea
                  anemones and is fiercely territorial. It will even attack divers
                  if they approach, but stops as soon as they move away from the
    Trivia:      "[Cooperation?]
                  The clownfish benefits from its symbiotic relationship with the
                  sea anemone through gaining protection from predators. However,
                  it's unclear if there is any advantage for the sea anemone as the
                  role the clownfish plays for it is unknown. So this may be a truly
                  symbiotic relationship, favourable for both sides, or simply a 
                  one-sided one."
    52. <P8/4> Orange skunk clownfish - Amphiprion sandaracinos
                  (NA) Yellow clownfish
                  (FR) Poisson-clown à bande dorsale
                  (DE) Weißrücken-Anemonenfisch
                  (ES) Pez payaso naranja
                  (IT) Pesce pagliaccio arancione
    Length:       14 cm / 6 in
    Description: "This orange fish has a white line running from its mouth down to
                  its caudal fin, and a row of distinctive long spines behind each
                  set of gills. Its scientific name is amphiprion, which means 'a
                  saw on both sides'. When it first comes into contact with a new
                  sea anemone, it lets the tentacles touch its head and fins and
                  adapts its body little by little."
    Trivia:      "[House-hunting]
                  This fish prefers to live with a particular species of sea
                  anemone, but how can it tell that one kind apart from all the
                  other anemones in the sea? This fish can 'smell' anemones and
                  uses the chemicals they give off to find the anemone it wants."
    53. <P8/5> Sapphire devil - Chrysiptera cyanea
                  (FR) Demoiselle bleue
                  (DE) Saphir-Demoiselle
                  (ES) Damisela azul
                  (IT) Damigella azzurra
    Length:       8.5cm / 3.3 in
    Description: "As the name suggests, it has a brilliant blue body. The male has
                  a blue tail fin with a black outline, while the tail fin of the
                  female and young fish is transparent. It spawns on rocks and
                  coral, and the young are usually raised by the male."
    Trivia:      "[Unique cells]
                  The sapphire devil isn't actually blue; it appears blue because
                  rainbow cells on the body's surface reflect blue light. The
                  colour can change from a deep blue to a bright blue depending
                  on the activity of these cells. It is thought that it uses this
                  trait to communicate its intentions to other sapphire devils.
                  When it dies, its body colour darkens."
    54. <P8/6> Starck's demoiselle - Chrysiptera starcki
                  (FR) Demoiselle de Starck
                  (DE) Starcks Riffbarsch
                  (ES) Damisela de Starck
                  (IT) Pesce donzella giallo e blu
    Length:       7 cm / 3 in
    Description: "Easily recognised by its beautiful dark blue colouring with a
                  yellow stripe running from the tip of its mouth all the way along
                  its back. Unlike other damselfish, it tends to dwell in deepwater
                  reefs and coral reefs. It is very wary and will conceal itself
                  amidst the rocks when it feels threatened."
    Trivia:      "[Unruly mob]
                  Large numbers of damselfish often gather in one place, giving the
                  impression that they are coming together in a school. However,
                  their movements are not coordinated so it's more likely to be
                  nothing more than a large number of fish."
    55. <P8/7> Goldtail demoiselle - Chrysiptera parasema
                  (FR) Demoiselle bleue à queue jaune
                  (DE) Gelbschwanzdemoiselle
                  (ES) Damisela cola amarilla
                  (IT) Damigella azzurra coda gialla
    Length:       6 cm / 2.5 in
    Description: "As its name suggests, this fish's blue body is adorned with a
                  yellow tail area. It spawns adhesive eggs on rocks and coral. The
                  male will protect and care for the eggs until they hatch, using
                  its tail to fan oxygen to them. Despite its small body, it will
                  risk its life to protect the eggs when an enemy approaches."
    56. <P8/8> Blue-green chromis - Chromis viridis
                  (DE) Grünes Schwalbenschwänzchen
                  (ES) Damisela verde
                  (IT) Castagnola verde
    Length:       8 cm / 3 in
    Description: "This fish is blue-green on top, gradually changing to white on
                  its belly. Depending on the angle of the light that hits it, it
                  appears to change from blue to green. Though difficult to tell
                  due to its small size, the teeth of its lower jaw protrude from
                  its mouth. Schools of these fish tend to congregate above coral
                  reefs and move in unison into crevices in the coral for safety
                  when threatened."
    [11.9]  Page 9  - Small Marine Life
    57. <P9/1> Three-spot dascyllus - Dascyllus trimaculatus
                  (NA) Threespot dascyllus
                  (FR) Demoiselle à trois taches
                  (DE) Dreipunkt-Preußenfisch
                  (ES) Damisela de tres manchas
                  (IT) Damigella domino
    Length:       15 cm / 6 in
    Description: "This is a small, dark blue fish whose young have a distinctive
                  pattern of three white spots which fades away as they reach
                  adulthood. Adult fish school near coral reefs, while young fish
                  form a symbiotic relationship with sea anemones. They have also
                  been known to live around soft coral and so are not as dependent
                  on sea anemones as the clownfish."
    58. <P9/2> Three-spot dascyllus (young) - Dascyllus trimaculatus
                  (NA) Threespot dascyllus (young) 
                  (FR) Demoiselle à trois taches (jeune)
                  (DE) Dreipunkt-Preußenfisch (JT)
                  (ES) Damisela de tres manchas (cría)
                  (IT) Damigella domino (giovane)
                  Details as above
    59. <P9/3> John dory - Zeus faber
                  (FR) Saint-Pierre
                  (DE) Heringskönig
                  (ES) Pez de San Pedro
                  (IT) Pesce San Pietro
    Length:       30 cm / 1 ft
    Description: "This fish has a distinctive long face and a target-like pattern
                  of concentric circles on its side. This kind of pattern is
                  normally found away from the centre of the body, so that the
                  fish will not be fatally wounded if it is attacked. However, the
                  john dory's pattern is in the centre of its body; it may be used
                  to scare off predators by imitating the eye of a much larger
    60. <P9/4> Singular bannerfish - Heniochus singularius
                  (FR) Poisson-cocher malais
                  (DE) Malayen-Wimpelfisch
                  (ES) Portaestandarte singular
                  (IT) Pesce bandiera singolare
    Length:       24 cm / 9 in
    Description: "This fish can easily be identified by its alternating white and
                  black pattern and elongated dorsal fin. It also has a small
                  protrusion above its eyes. The length of a young bannerfish's
                  dorsal fin is about the same as the height of its body,
                  distinguishing it from other fish."
    Trivia:      "[Aquatic garden]
                  When people picture the southern oceans, they often imagine an
                  inhospitable environment with few nutrients or plankton. Coral
                  reefs are an exception to this. Plankton flourish in these areas,
                  eating the nutrients released by the coral. A food cycle is
                  established based on other creatures eating this plankton, and an
                  aquatic garden packed with life develops."
    61. <P9/5> Bicolour angelfish - Centropyge bicolor
                  (NA) Bicolor angelfish
                  (FR) Poisson-ange nain à deux bandes
                  (DE) Blaugelber Zwergkaiserfisch
                  (ES) Pez ángel bicolor
                  (IT) Pesce angelo bicolore
    Length:       14 cm / 6 in
    Description: "This yellow and deep blue fish makes its home in rocks and coral
                  reefs. One male will create a harem of several females in order
                  to breed. When a male leaves a harem, the largest female will
                  become the male. Small females cannot participate in the harem
                  if they become males, so they continue to breed as females until
                  they grow larger."
    62. <P9/6> Royal angelfish - Pygoplites diacanthus
                  (FR) Poisson-ange duc
                  (DE) Pfauenkaiserfisch
                  (ES) Pez ángel real
                  (IT) Pesce angelo arcobaleno
    Length:       25 cm / 10 in
    Description: "This fish has black and pale blue stripes down its striking
                  yellow body. Young fish have a circular pattern resembling an
                  eye on their dorsal fins. It lives amongst rocks or coral reefs,
                  forming harems."
    63. <P9/7> Threadfin butterflyfish - Chaetodon auriga
                  (FR) Poisson-papillon jaune
                  (DE) Fähnchen-Falterfisch
                  (ES) Pez mariposa aleta ribeteada
                  (IT) Pesce farfalla auriga
    Length:       20 cm / 8 in
    Description: "It has a black circular pattern at the rear of its dorsal fin,
                  from which a distinctive filament trails. It inhabits coral
                  reefs, and feeds on coral polyps and sea anemones with its mouth
                  of small hair-like teeth."
    64. <P9/8> Bluelashed butterflyfish - Chaetodon bennetti
                  (FR) Poisson-papillon de Benett
                  (DE) Bennetts Falterfisch
                  (ES) Pez mariposa de Bennett
                  (IT) Pesce farfalla eclisse
    Length:       16 cm / 6 in
    Description: "Its yellow body is adorned with a white-rimmed black circle,
                  designed to look like an eye. A strike in the eyes is fatal to a
                  fish, so predators tend to aim for the eyes of their prey.
                  However, if the pattern were to be mistaken for an eye and
                  attacked, it would not cause a fatal wound."
    Trivia:      "[An eye for expansion]
                  The young of fish who normally inhabit warm waters can sometimes
                  be carried to cool waters by sea currents. When winter comes and
                  the temperature drops, these young fish don't usually survive.
                  Some do, however, and these fish become very significant. If the
                  surviving fish breed in these waters, the area of habitation for
                  their species will be expanded."
    [11.10]  Page 10  - Small Marine Life
    65. <P10/1> Black pyramid butterflyfish - Hemitaurichthys zoster
                  (FR) Poisson-papillon pyramide noir
                  (DE) Schwarzer Pyramiden-Falterfisch
                  (ES) Pez mariposa blanquimarrón
                  (IT) Pesce farfalla piramide nero
    Length:       18 cm / 7 in
    Description: "It is black with a conspicuous white pyramid-shaped stripe. Its
                  closest relative within the butterflyfish family is the pyramid
                  butterflyfish, not only in terms of similar body shape, but also
                  given its tendency to form schools."
    66. <P10/2> Banded angelfish - Apolemichthys arcuatus
                  (FR) Poisson-ange bandit
                  (DE) Schwarzbinden-Rauchkaiserfisch
                  (ES) Pez ángel de banda negra
                  (IT) Pesce angelo bandito
    Length:       20 cm / 8 in
    Description: "It is primarily white with a black line running from above the
                  eyes to the back of the tail fin. On closer examination, a clear
                  white border can be seen around this line and the black areas on
                  its anal and tail fins."
    Trivia:      "[Finely-tuned senses]
                  A fish senses sounds using two systems: the inner ear, located
                  inside the ear, and the lateral line, a sensory organ running
                  down its body. The lateral line is also able to sense changes in
                  water currents and pressure. When swimming in a group, the fish
                  can detect minute changes in the currents, allowing it to swim
                  without colliding with other fish."
    67. <P10/3> Humpback grouper (young) - Cromileptes altivelis
                  (FR) Mérou bossu (jeune)
                  (DE) Paddelbarsch (JT)
                  (ES) Pez pantera (cría)
                  (IT) Cernia pagliaccio (giovane)
    Length:       5 cm / 2 in
    Description: "Easily recognised for its white body with black polka dots, it
                  becomes taller as it grows and its head becomes smaller and
                  narrower. Its spots also shrink in size, but increase in number.
                  It lives in rocky and coral reefs and eats any fish that will fit
                  in its mouth."
    Found as:     young only
    68. <P10/4> Dusky batfish (young) - Platax pinnatus
                  (FR) Poisson-chauve-souris (jeune)
                  (DE) Spitzkopf-Fledermausfisch (JT)
                  (ES) Pez murciélago de aleta grande (cría)
                  (IT) Pesce pipistrello pinnato (giovane)
    Length:       35 cm / 1 ft 2 in
    Description: "Young fish are around 4cm, black with a bright orange tinge
                  around the edges. Their large fins flex gracefully as they swim
                  through the water. The features of young fish gradually disappear
                  in mature fish as they become plain silver and their fins become
    Found as:     young only
    69. <P10/5> Mandarinfish - Pterosynchiropus splendidus
                  (FR) Poisson mandarin
                  (DE) Mandarinfisch
                  (ES) Pez mandarín
                  (IT) Pesce mandarino
    Length:       7 cm / 3 in
    Description: "This fish is a vibrant yellow-green with blue flowing lines all
                  over its body. It lives in the crevices of branch coral and males
                  compete violently for territory and females, biting each other
                  when fighting."
    Trivia:      "[New face in a familiar family]
                  In 2005 a new genus in the mandarinfish's family, callionymidae,
                  was discovered in a lake in Cambodia. Although many fish are
                  discovered every year, it is extremely rare to find a new genus.
                  It was first seen outside of the lake being sold in a nearby
                  market place, which makes the discovery even more astonishing."
    70. <P10/6> Goldeye rockfish - Sebastes thompsoni
                  (FR) Sébaste de Thompson
                  (DE) Sebastes thompsoni
                  (ES) Pez roca de ojo dorado
    Length:       35 cm / 1 ft 2 in
    Description: "This fish is easily identified by its pale red body and large
                  eyes. It hatches its eggs inside its body and its young are
                  released only when they have grown to about 5mm. They spend their
                  first 120 days floating amongst drifting seaweed, after which
                  they are able to live near the seabed. They move further into the
                  depths as they mature."
    71. <P10/7> Marine betta - Calloplesiops altivelis
                  (FR) Poisson-comète
                  (DE) Echter Mirakelbarsch
                  (ES) Cometa
                  (IT) Calloplesiops altivelis
    Length:       15 cm / 6 in
    Description: "Covered with pale blue dots, this fish looks like a field of
                  shooting stars. It tends to hide amongst rocks with its tail fin
                  hanging out, which makes the eye-like pattern on its back look
                  like a moray eel poking its head out of its nesting hole."
    72. <P10/8> Harlequin sweetlips (young) - Plectorhinchus chaetodontoides
                  (FR) Gaterin arlequin
                  (DE) Harlekin-Süßlippe (JT)
                  (ES) Labios dulces (cría)
                  (IT) Gaterino arlecchino (giovane)
    Length:       5 cm / 2 in
    Description: "Young fish are dark with seven large, black-rimmed white spots.
                  As they grow, spots the same colour as the main body start to
                  appear inside the white ones as they expand, and eventually they
                  become pale fish with many dark spots."
    Trivia:      "[Mimicking mimicry]
                  The young fish's undulating swimming is thought to be an attempt
                  to mimic the flatworm. Flatworms are believed to imitate the
                  movement of sea slugs, but it's not clear if either of these
                  theories are true."
    Found as:     young only
    [11.11]  Page 11  - Small Marine Life
    73. <P11/1> Marbled flounder (young) - Pleuronectes yokohamae
                  (FR) Pseudopleuronecte du Japon (jeune)
                  (DE) Japanische Flunder (JT)
                  (ES) Lenguado japonés (cría)
    Length:       15 cm / 6 in
    Description: "Both eyes are on the right side of this fish's flat, elliptical
                  body. It changes its colour like a chameleon to blend in with the
                  seabed where it lives. Very rarely, white-bodied marbled
                  flounders are born. These fish lack the ability to change their
                  colour and are easily seen by predators. As such, they have a
                  lower life expectancy."
    Found as:     Young only
    74. <P11/2> Isoginpo - Parablennius yatabei
                  (NA) Yatabei blenny
                  (FR) Blennie de Yatabe
                  (ES) Blenio de roca
    Length:       9 cm / 3.5 in
    Description: "This fish has protruding eyes with a long, thin protuberance
                  above each one and a pair of sharp teeth in each jaw; it may be
                  small but it packs a painful bite. It lives hidden in crevices in
                  rocky or coral reefs."
    75. <P11/3> Rippled rockskipper - Istiblennius enosimae
                  (ES) Blénido de coral
    Length:       15 cm / 6 in
    Description: "This fish's bulging eyes give it a certain charm when viewed
                  head-on. As it inhabits rocky shores, it can get stranded in tide
                  pools at low tide. If it is threatened it jumps out of the water,
                  skipping over rocks as it escapes to another tide."
    76. <P11/4> Red-spotted blenny - Blenniella chrysospilos
                  (FR) Blennie à taches rouges
                  (DE) Rotpunkt-Schleimfisch
                  (ES) Blenio de manchas rojas
                  (IT) Blenniella chrysospilos
    Length:       10 cm / 4 in
    Description: "This fish has a charming face with protruding eyes and countless
                  red spots across its body. It lives in cracks in rock or coral
                  and sticks its head out from its nest to survey its surroundings,
                  moving its neck as if nodding agreeably. Its face and mannerisms
                  make it popular with divers."
    77. <P11/5> Bicolour blenny - Ecsenius bicolor
                  (NA) Bicolor blenny
                  (FR) Blennie bicolore
                  (DE) Zweifarbiger Schleimfisch
                  (ES) Blenio bicolor
                  (IT) Pesce bicolore
    Length:       8 cm / 3 in
    Description: "The front and rear of this fish are different colours, which
                  gives it its scientific name, meaning 'two colours'. Some fish
                  have different colours on their back and stomachs instead of on
                  their front and rear."
    Trivia:      "[Male tactics]
                  When wooing a partner, the male will approach a female with all
                  his fins spread out and repeatedly swim upwards in a zigzag
                  fashion and then back to his nest. An interested female will
                  gradually follow the male, and before she knows it she will be
                  inside his nest where they breed and she lays eggs. The male then
                  takes care of the eggs until they hatch."
    78. <P11/6> Fire goby - Nemateleotris magnifica
                  (FR) Eleotris magnifique
                  (DE) Feuer-Schwertgrundel
                  (ES) Gobio de fuego
                  (IT) Ghiozzo di fuoco
    Length:       7 cm / 3 in
    Description: "This fish displays a beautiful gradient of colour from its pale
                  yellow head through its milky white body to its brown tail. It is
                  often found in pairs close to breeding holes in coral reefs or on
                  the sea floor. The bond between the pair is strong, and when they
                  feel threatened the female hides in the breeding hole quickly
                  followed by the male."
    79. <P11/7> Elegant firefish - Nemateleotris decora
                  (FR) Eleotris décoré
                  (DE) Bunte Schwertgrundel
                  (ES) Pez dardo decorado
                  (IT) Pesce di fuoco
    Length:       7 cm / 3 in
    Description: "A colour graduation runs from this fish's head to tail fin,
                  moving from purple to milky white to dark purple. It lives on the
                  sea bed around coral reefs and often swims into the direction of
                  the outgoing tide. It is believed to do this in order to feed on
                  plankton being swept out to sea."
    80. <P11/8> Monster shrimp goby - Tomiyamichthys oni
                  (FR) Gobie-ogre
                  (DE) Monster-Wächtergrundel
                  (ES) Gobio japonés
    Length:       10 cm / 4 in
    Description: "This fish has slightly protruding eyes and large brown patches on
                  its sides. It has sensory organs called pit organs and sensory
                  pipes in its head which help it to detect the movements of prey
                  and predators. These organs are extremely small, almost impossible
                  to see with the naked eye. Nesting in the sand, it forms a
                  symbiotic relationship with Randall's pistol shrimp."
    [11.12]  Page 12  - Small Marine Life
    81. <P12/1> Watchman goby - Cryptocentrus cinctus
                  (FR) Gobie soufre
                  (DE) Zitronen-Wächtergrundel
                  (ES) Gobio guarda
    Length:       6.5cm / 2.5in
    Description: "This fish can be grey with dark patches or completely yellow.
                  Both types have small cobalt dots scattered across their head and
                  dorsal fin. This goby forms a symbiotic relationship with
                  Randall's pistol shrimp on the sea bed near to rocky or coral
    Trivia:      "[Same fish, different colour]
                  The two colour varieties of this fish were once thought to be
                  different species, but as they both live in the same nests and
                  there are no physical differences between them, it was decided
                  that they are actually the same."
    Notes:        Both colour varieties appear in the game. The yellow version
                  is suffixed with '(yellow)', but if you find either one it
                  completes this entry in the Encyclopedi
    82. <P12/2> Singapore prawn goby - Cryptocentrus singapurensis
                  (NA) Singapore prawn-goby
                  (FR) Gobie de Singapour
                  (DE) Partnergrundel
                  (ES) Gobio guarda tropical
                  (IT) Cryptocentrus singapurensis
    Length:       15 cm / 6 in
    Description: "Fish in the genus cryptocentrus are often plain, but this member
                  is distinctively showy with red lines, circular patterns and a
                  scattering of small blue spots. In the mating season, the rear
                  half of the male's body and his tail fin turn dark, and he courts
                  females by hovering above his nest with every fin spread wide.
                  This goby forms a symbiotic relationship with goby shrimp on the
                  sea bed near to rocky or coral reefs."
    83. <P12/3> Bluespotted jawfish - Opistognathus rosenblatti
                  (FR) Opistognathe à points bleus
                  (DE) Blaupunkt-Brunnenbauer
                  (ES) Bocón manchas azules
    Length:       10 cm / 4 in
    Description: "As its name suggests, this fish is covered in attractive blue
                  spots. It digs a hole in the seabed for its nest, where males
                  incubate the young in their mouths."
    84. <P12/4> Peacock blenny - Salaria pavo
                  (FR) Blennie paon
                  (DE) Pfauenschleimfisch
                  (ES) Gallerbo
                  (IT) Bavosa pavone
    Length:       13 cm / 5 in
    Description: "This fish is often seen hiding in cracks in rocks with just its
                  unusual protruding head peeking out. It's attractive enough if
                  you just look at its green and white colouring."
    85. <P12/5> Oblong goby - Gobiodon sp
                  (FR) Gobie oblong
                  (DE) Korallengrundel
                  (ES) Gobio rectangular
    Length:       4 cm / 1.5 in
    Description: "This small fish is brown with a green tinge and four thin, pale
                  blue lines on its head which continue to the base of its dorsal
                  and anal fins. It lives in the branches of acropora corals,
                  feeding on the mucus they expel and on small crustaceans."
    Trivia:      "[Waiting its turn]
                  This species still has no official scientific name and is
                  awaiting.classification. There are over 250 species of goby and
                  more than 2,000 variants, with more being discovered each year.
                  As research is needed to determine the correct classification,
                  there are many other species also waiting for a scientific name."
    86. <P12/6> Yellow clown goby - Gobiodon okinawae
                  (FR) Gobiodon jaune
                  (DE) Gelbe Korallengrundel
                  (ES) Gobio amarillo
    Length:       3.5 cm / 1.5 in
    Description: "This small yellow fish has no scales and its pelvic fins have
                  evolved into suction pads. It lives in the branches of acropora
                  corals in groups of up to several dozen."
    Trivia:      "[It's all relative]
                  This little fish is big compared to other members of the genus
                  gobiodon. There is a genus of even smaller fish within the
                  gobies, pandaka, some of which measure only 1 - 1.5cm long.
                  There are even smaller fish in the world; the smallest is a
                  relative of the carp that measures only 7.9 - 10mm."
    87. <P12/7> Red-spotted goby - Gobiodon sp
                  (FR) Gobie à points rouges
                  (DE) Rotpunkt-Grundel
                  (ES) Gobio de manchas rojas
                  (IT) Ghiozzo a macchie rosse
    Length:       4 cm / 1.5 in
    Description: "This bright yellow-green fish with a scattering of red spots
                  lives between the branches of acropora corals. After spawning,
                  both parents protect the eggs until they hatch. Their young drift
                  away on the ocean currents, and after floating for a short time
                  they establish themselves on a different coral."
    Trivia:      "[Nameless]
                  This species was given the name rivulatus pending further
                  classification to determine its correct scientific name. As a
                  result, the current name only signifies that it belongs to the
                  genus gobiodon and is not its true scientific name."
    Notes:        I guess that trivia note means the scientific name should have
                  been listed as 'gobiodon rivulatus' - so here it is on the off
                  chance that somebody searches for it.          
    88. <P12/8> Five-lined coral goby - Gobiodon quinquestrigatus
                  (FR) Gobie corail aux cinq lignes
                  (DE) Fünf-Streifen-Korallengrundel
                  (ES) Gobio de cinco rayas
    Length:       4 cm / 1.5 in
    Description: "This fish is a striking red in colour, especially around its
                  head. Its body colour can vary and there are also some completely
                  brown or grey fish. When it feels threatened, it defends itself
                  by exuding a toxic mucus from the surface of its body."
    Trivia:      "[Poison for self-defence]
                  Many gobies are not poisonous, but some species such as this one
                  are. Some poisonous gobies have the same poison as the blowfish,
                  tetrodotoxin, in their skin and muscles. This fish's poison is
                  fatal to other fish if it enters their body, but is believed to
                  be harmless to humans."
    [11.13]  Page 13  - Small Marine Life
    89. <P13/1> Long-spine porcupinefish - Diodon holocanthus
                  (FR) Poisson-porc-épic tacheté
                  (DE) Braunflecken-Igelfisch
                  (ES) Pez erizo balón
                  (IT) Pesce istrice
    Length:       25 cm / 10 in
    Description: "Round and covered with countless long spines, this fish has an
                  endearing face with a small mouth and big eyes. Its distinctive
                  long spines evolved from scales."
    Trivia:      "[Countless needles]
                  Although it is not poisonous like other blowfish, it has a
                  distinctive means of self-defence. It swallows a large quantity
                  of water, swelling its body and causing the spines that normally
                  lie flat on its body to stick up. Once it has gone into this
                  defensive posture, a predator cannot attack without being pierced
                  by the spines. It has 400 - 600 spines, so it's probably a waste
                  of time trying to count them.
    Notes:        In other words, if you touch it, it will blow up!
    90. <P13/2> Yellow boxfish (young) - Ostracion cubicus
                  (FR) Poisson-coffre jaune (jeune)
                  (DE) Gewöhnlicher Kofferfisch (JT)
                  (ES) Pez cofre (cría)
                  (IT) Pesce scatola (giovane)
    Length:       3 cm / 1 in
    Description: "As its name suggests, this fish is shaped like a box. Young fish
                  are bright yellow with black spots, but their colour fades as
                  they grow and adults are a subdued brown. It has powerful teeth
                  which allow it to eat shellfish and other hard-shelled prey, but
                  it can also bite and injure if carelessly provoked."
    Found as:     young only 
    91. <P13/3> Whitespotted boxfish (young) - Ostracion meleagris meleagris
                  (FR) Coffre pintade (jeune)
                  (DE) Weißtüpfel-Kofferfisch (JT)
                  (ES) Pez cofre manchado (cría)
                  (IT) Pesce scatola a puntini (giovane)
    Length:       3 cm / 1 in
    Description: "Square and covered in hard, angular scales, this fry is black
                  with countless pale yellow spots. Its colour changes as it grows,
                  and adult males and females are different colours. Females have
                  white spots on a dark brown body, and males have many white spots
                  across their dark brown back and countless yellow spots on their
                  blue sides."
    Trivia:      "[Mostly harmless]
                  This fish has a poisonous mucus on its skin known as
                  ostracitoxin. It releases this poison when threatened, and it is
                  powerful enough to kill all fish in a small aquarium tank. It is
                  unlikely to be effective in its natural habitat, as it disperses
                  in the water. It is harmless to humans, and not related to the
                  poison found in blowfish."
    92. <P13/4> Tiger puffer (young) - Takifugu rubripes
                  (FR) Fugu (jeune)
                  (DE) Takifugu rubripes (JT)
                  (ES) Pez globo tigre (cría)
                  (IT) Pesce palla giapponese (giovane)
    Length:       10 cm / 4 in
    Description: "Round and covered in numerous small spines, this fish's internal
                  organs contain a powerful poison. Young fish live on the seabed
                  but adults migrate for great distances, returning to their
                  birthplace for mating season."
    Trivia:      "[Warning: deadly poison]
                  Blowfish poison is expressed in mouse units (MU). A poison that
                  can kill a 20g mouse in 15 minutes is a 1MU poison. The lethal
                  dose for a human is 10,000MU, and a tiger puffer is said to have
                  enough poison in one organ to kill 10 people. The tiger puffer is
                  not poisonous at birth, but instead accumulates poison from its
    93. <P13/5> Striated frogfish - Antennarius striatus
                  (FR) Poisson-grenouille strié
                  (DE) Gestreifter Anglerfisch
                  (ES) Ranisapo estriado
                  (IT) Pesce rana striato
    Length:       25 cm / 9.8 in
    Description: "This rounded fish is covered in small protuberances and has
                  pectoral fins which have changed into leg-like appendages and a
                  fishing rod-like protuberance above its mouth. As there are many
                  variations in body colour, it is difficult to tell species apart
                  by colour alone."
    Trivia:      "[Eggs shrouded in mystery]
                  This species lays its eggs in what is known as an epipelagic egg
                  raft, where a large number of eggs are wrapped in a long
                  gelatinous belt. The advantages of this method of egg-laying are
    Notes:        A big warm welcome for one of the most-encountered fish from
                  Endless Ocean. You won't find it quite so easily this time,
    94. <P13/6> Painted frogfish - Antennarius pictus
                  (FR) Antennaire peint
                  (DE) Rundflecken-Anglerfisch
                  (ES) Pez rana pintado
                  (IT) Pesce rana dipinto
    Length:       30 cm / 11.8 in
    Description: "This rounded fish has a large mouth, pectoral fins which have
                  evolved into leg-like appendages and a fishing rod-like
                  protuberance above its mouth. It moves as if walking by using its
                  pectoral and pelvic fins like limbs. Another of its varied means
                  of movement is to spurt sea water from small holes located under
                  its pectoral fins."
    95. <P13/7> Warty frogfish - Antennarius maculatus
                  (FR) Antennaire verruqueux
                  (DE) Warzen-Anglerfisch
                  (ES) Pejesapo verrugoso
                  (IT) Pesce rana maculato
    Length:       15 cm / 6 in
    Description: "Normally white with coloured blotches spreading back from its
                  eyes, a rare few are black with yellow spots. It has a fishing
                  rod-like protuberance above its mouth with a lure on the end
                  which it uses to entice its prey, swallowing them whole as soon
                  as they are close enough. The form of the lure changes as the
                  fish grows; it looks like a small crustacean in young fish but
                  more like a small fish in adults."
    [11.14]  Page 14  - Small Marine Life
    96. <P14/1> Red gurnard - Chelidonichthys spinosus
                  (NA) Sea robin              
                  (FR) Grondin
                  (DE) Knurrhahn
                  (ES) Arete
                  (IT) Gallinella orientale
    Length:       40 cm / 1 ft 4 in
    Description: "Easily recognised by its angular head and striking green pectoral
                  fins spotted with small blue flecks. It can make a croaking noise
                  by vibrating its swim bladder."
    Triva:       "[Useful spines]
                  It has three finger-like spines, evolved from other fins,
                  underneath each pectoral fin. They can be used like legs to walk
                  on the sea floor, and also to find the crustaceans and worms it
                  feeds on; they contain special sensory organs that can find prey
                  hidden in the sandy sea bed."
    97. <P14/2> Southern orange-lined cardinalfish - Apogon properuptus
                  (FR) Poisson-cardinal rayé or
                  (DE) Vierstreifen-Kardinalbarsch
                  (ES) Pez cardenal rayado
                  (IT) Pesce cardinale
    Length:       6 cm / 2.5 in
    Description: "Six golden lines run the length of its body, including over their
                  eyes to make them hard to find for attackers. They pair up during
                  mating season and the male protects the mass of spawned eggs in
                  his mouth until they hatch. He devotes himself to this task for
                  around eight days, unable to feed until hatching is complete."
    98. <P14/3> Cardinal fish - Apogon imberbis
                  (FR) Poisson-cardinal
                  (DE) Meerbarbenkönig
                  (ES) Salmonete real
                  (IT) Re di triglie
    Length:       15 cm / 6 in
    Description: "Named for its bright red body, this fish is a member of the
                  cardinal family, known for its males incubating the young in
                  their mouths."
    99. <P14/4> Sea goldie - Pseudanthias squamipinnis
                  (FR) Barbier rouge
                  (DE) Juwelen-Fahnenbarsch
                  (ES) Antias cola de lira
                  (IT) Castagnola tropicale
    Length:       12 cm / 4.5 in
    Description: "This vivid orange fish often gathers in large schools near coral
                  reefs, and females far outnumber males in the group; this species
                  has more females than males overall. Males have distinctive
                  characteristics such as a red-violet pattern on their pectoral
                  fins and elongated thread-like tips on their fins. Try finding
                  the males in a school if you see them near sea anemones."
    Trivia:      "[Yesterday's mum, today's dad]
                  Young sea goldies are all born female and become male when they
                  are fully grown. Not all females become males; only large females
                  change sex .10 - 30% of fish in a large school are male while
                  small schools may only have a single male."
    100. <P14/5> Stocky anthias - Pseudanthias hypselosoma
                  (FR) Anthias trapu
                  (DE) Fransen-Fahnenbarsch
                  (ES) Antias japonés
    Length:       10 cm / 4 in
    Description: "Normally pale pink with a red mark on the dorsal fin, the male
                  becomes more brightly coloured during mating season. It lives
                  around coral reefs and gathers in shoals where plankton get
                  caught in the ocean currents and driven upwards."
    Trivia:      "[Secret gatherings]
                  Groups of male anthias sometimes swim together in a behaviour
                  known as clustering. It is thought to be significant in
                  assessing the state of the school and deciding the rank of the
                  various males."
    101. <P14/6> Sakuradai - Sacura margaritacea
                  (NA) Cherry grouper
                  (FR) Serran cerisier blanc
                  (DE) Fahnenbarsch
                  (ES) Tres colas japonés
                  (IT) Pesce lancere ocellato
    Length:       15 cm / 6 in 
    Description: "Red with a white pattern that looks like cherry blossom petals,
                  its scientific name is made up of sacura, meaning 'cherry
                  blossom' and margaritacea, meaning 'pearly'. Females are yellow
                  with a black pattern on their dorsal fins."
    102. <P14/7> Sunset anthias - Pseudanthias parvirostris
                  (FR) Anthias soleil
                  (DE) Diadem-Fahnenbarsch
                  (ES) Antias puesta de sol
    Length:       8 cm / 3 in
    Description: "This fish is red with a yellow tinge and a violet, halo-like
                  pattern on its head. As it lives near deep-sea coral reefs it is
                  seldom seen."
    Trivia:      "[Which came first?]
                  There are many fish which change gender from female to male. The
                  basic reason why so few fish change from male to female is
                  because the fish's ovaries develop before its testes. When the
                  ovaries are developed, allowing it to function as a female, the 
                  testes have not yet matured. So it cannot function as a male at
    [11.15]  Page 15  - Small Marine Life
    103. <P15/1> Flying fish - Cypselurus agoo agoo
                  (FR) Poisson volant du Japon
                  (DE) Japanischer Fliegender Fisch
                  (ES) Pez volador japonés
    Length:       35 cm / 1 ft 2 in
    Description: "Easily recognised by its long, wing-like pectoral fins which it
                  uses to escape large predators, making its getaway above the
                  waves instead of underwater. It bursts out of the sea and spreads
                  its wings, gliding over the surface of the water as if flying."
    Trivia:      "[Hidden ingenuity]
                  Its bones are full of holes, which makes it lighter than other
                  fish. It also has no stomach or short intestine in order to shed
                  the weight of undigested food. As a result, it is able to fly for
                  10 - 20 seconds and has a range of 100 - 200m, but can fly even
                  further if it catches the wind."
    104. <P15/2> Chub mackerel - Scomber japonicus
                  (FR) Maquereau espagnol
                  (DE) Mittelmeermakrele
                  (ES) Estornino
                  (IT) Lanzardo
    Length:       40 cm / 1 ft 4 in
    Description: "This fish can be identified by its blue back and ripple pattern.
                  It inhabits temperate and sub-tropical climates and migrates
                  seasonally in large groups. It preys on small animals and fish
                  and is in turn preyed upon by larger ones."
    Trivia:      "[Eat with caution!]
                  The chub mackerel can contain the parasite anisakis. If eaten 
                  uncooked, it can cause stomach aches and nausea. However, it
                  can be eaten after being suitably frozen or heated to ensure
                  the parasite has been destroyed. The parasite that infects fish
                  is a larva whose adult form infects whales and dolphins."
    105. <P15/3> Japanese jack mackerel - Trachurus japonicus
                  (FR) Chinchard du Japon
                  (DE) Japanische Bastardmakrele
                  (ES) Jurel japonés
                  (IT) Suro giapponese
    Length:       30 cm / 1 ft
    Description: "This fish has spiny scales running from the rear half of its
                  body to the base of its tail fin. Although these are an inherent
                  characteristic of horse mackerel, their function remains unclear.
                  To escape the attention of predators such as tuna, it uses
                  protective colouration; seen from above it blends in with the
                  water, seen from below it blends in with the water's surface."
    106. <P15/4> Japanese sardine - Sardinops melanostictus
                  (NA) Pacific sardine (maybe?)
                  (FR) Pilchard du Japon
                  (DE) Japanische Sardine
                  (ES) Sardina japonesa
                  (IT) Sardina del Pacifico
    Length:       20 cm / 8 in
    Description: "This long, slender fish has a silver underside and blue back with
                  lines of black specks running along its body. It migrates in huge
                  schools, ranging from tens of thousands to around one hundred
                  million fish."
    [11.16]  Page 16  - Small Marine Life
    107. <P16/1> Antarctic silverfish - Pleuragramma antarcticum
                  (FR) Calandre antarctique
                  (DE) Antarktischer Silberfisch
                  (ES) Diablillo antártico
    Length:       25 cm / 10 in
    Description: "This small fish is an indispensable food source for seals,
                  penguins and other animals in the Antarctic."
    108. <P16/2> Capelin - Mallotus villosus
                  (FR) Capelan
                  (DE) Lodde
                  (ES) Capelán
                  (IT) Capelin
    Length:       18 cm / 7 in
    Description: "This fish is covered in countless small scales. It forms large
                  schools during breeding season and spawns along the coast. Many
                  young die after hatching and large numbers are washed up on
                  shore. It is often caught for food, and many are exported to
    109. <P16/3> Dusky rockcod - Trematomus newnesi
                  (FR) Bocasson terne
                  (ES) Austrobacalao oscuro
    Length:       20 cm / 8 in
    Description: "Other than a slight resemblance to the yellowfin goby, this fish
                  doesn't look particularly remarkable. Usually found hiding
                  amongst seaweed or rocks, it eats micro-organisms and in turn
                  becomes an important food supply for other members of the
                  Antarctic food chain."
    110. <P16/4> Bald notothen - Pagothenia borchgrevinki
                  (FR) Bocasson chauve
                  (ES) Notothen pelado
    Length:       20 cm / 8 in
    Description: "This fish lives in water as cold as -2°C or -3°C in the
                  Antarctic. Normally a fish would freeze in these temperatures,
                  but this species has a special antifreeze protein that protects
    111. <P16/5> Slender bristlemouth - Cyclothone pseudopallida
                  (FR) Cyclothone mince
                  (ES) Luciérnaga pálida
    Length:       7 cm / 3 in
    Description: "This fish has a large, wide mouth in relation to its body. It is
                  normally found in the ocean depths but sometimes swims up to the
    [11.17]  Page 17  - Large Marine Life
    112. <P17/1> Red sea bream - Pagrus major
                  (FR) Dorade japonaise
                  (DE) Seebrasse
                  (ES) Pargo japonés
                  (IT) Pagro del Giappone
    Length:       60 cm / 2 ft
    Description: "Pale red with light blue flecks, its colouration is thought to be
                  connected to its environment in some way; wild sea bream are
                  normally more brightly coloured than cultivated fish. It lives
                  in deep water areas and feeds on prey such as prawns and crabs."
    113. <P17/2> Asian sheepshead wrasse - Semicossyphus reticulatus
                  (FR) Girelle réticulée
                  (ES) Pez cráneo de oveja
    Length:       1 m / 3 ft 3in
    Description: "This fish has a distinctive face formed by a large lump on its
                  head and a large, thick chin, both of which are smaller in
                  females. Young fish are orange and look nothing like adults.
                  This fish is fiercely territorial, which leads to violent
                  confrontations between males."
    114. <P17/3> Golden trevally - Gnathanodon speciosus
                  (FR) Carangue royale jaune
                  (DE) Königsmakrele
                  (ES) Jurel dorado
                  (IT) Carango mormora
    Length:       1.2 m / 3 ft 11 in
    Description: "Easily recognised by its dazzling gold colouring, adults are over
                  1m in length but their tiny young are easy prey for other fish.
                  The young protect themselves by staying close to larger
                  creatures, such as sharks, who find them too small to eat. They
                  do sometimes get eaten by the larger fish, so they're never
                  completely safe."
    115. <P17/4> Giant trevally - Caranx ignobilis
                  (FR) Carangue géante
                  (DE) Stachelmakrele
                  (ES) Jurel gigante
                  (IT) Carango gigante indopacifico
    Length:       1.7 m / 5 ft 7 in 
    Description: "This large, silvery fish swims in groups when young, but can
                  live alone once mature. It has great strength and is popular
                  with fishermen."
    [11.18]  Page 18  - Large Marine Life
    116. <P18/1> Largehead hairtail - Trichiurus lepturus
                  (FR) Poisson-sabre commun
                  (DE) Haarschwanz
                  (ES) Pez sable
                  (IT) Pesce coltello
    Length:       1.5 m / 4 ft 11 in
    Description: "Its long, sleek, silver body resembles a sword. It has no scales
                  and is covered in a silvery substance called guanine. Guanine is
                  used in nail polish and imitation pearls."
    Trivia:      "[Strange way of swimming]
                  The largehead hairtail lives in schools on the deep ocean floor.
                  It swims with its head raised and body angled vertically, waiting
                  for prey to pass overhead. At full speed it swims with its body
                  at a horizontal angle, and young fish swim with their heads
                  lowered.and bodies angled downwards."
    117. <P18/2> Pilotfish - Naucrates ductor
                  (FR) Poisson-pilote
                  (DE) Lotsenfisch
                  (ES) Pez piloto
                  (IT) Pesce pilota
    Length:       50 cm / 1 ft 8 in
    Description: "Recognisable by its dark stripes, it swims with large fish such
                  as whale sharks as if guiding them. It lives by eating their
                  leftover food and feeding off their parasites."
    118. <P18/3> Mahi-mahi - Coryphaena hippurus
                  (FR) Dorade coryphène commune
                  (DE) Goldmakrele
                  (ES) Lampuga
                  (IT) Corifena cavallina
    Length:       2 m / 6 ft 7 in
    Description: "This fish has a dark green back and a shiny silver and gold
                  underside. As males mature, their foreheads protrude out to form
                  their characteristic face. When they die, their body turns pale
                  and loses its shine. They live near the surface and are often
                  found under flotsam."
    Trivia:      "[Persistent]
                  Mahi-mahi can reach speeds of up to 60km/h when chasing prey such
                  as flying fish. Even when flying fish try to escape by jumping
                  out of the water and gliding, mahi-mahi have been known to jump
                  as high as six metres to catch them."
    119. <P18/4> Antarctic cod - Dissostichus mawsoni
                  (NA) Antarctic toothfish
                  (FR) Légine antarctique
                  (DE) Riesen-Antarktisdorsch
                  (ES) Bacalao antártico
    Length:       1.3 m / 4 ft 4 in
    Description: "Living at depths of a few dozen metres to over 1000m, this fish
                  is commercially fished by trawlers. Many people probably eat it
                  without even knowing what it is. It can be caught so far south
                  that it provides food for staff at Antarctic research stations."
    [11.19]  Page 19  - Large Marine Life
    120. <P19/1> Longtooth grouper - Epinephelus bruneus
                  (FR) Mérou longues dents
                  (DE) Zackenbarsch
                  (ES) Mero dentón
    Length:       1.3 m / 4 ft 4 in
    Description: "This huge fish is over 1m in length, brown with numerous dark
                  bands. It inhabits reefs at depths of up to 200m in the open sea.
                  Living independently, it hides among rocks during the day and
                  emerges when night falls to hunt for its prey. However, it rarely
                  strays far from its territory, typically hunting nearby. There
                  are many who consider this a delicacy amongst fish for its
                  flavoursome taste."
    121. <P19/2> White grouper - Epinephelus aeneus
                  (FR) Mérou blanc
                  (DE) Weißer Zackenbarsch
                  (ES) Cherna de ley
                  (IT) Cernia bianca
    Length:       1 m / 3 ft 3 in
    Description: "Easily recognised by its pale bands, this variety of grouper
                  weighs around 20 - 30kg."
    122. <P19/3> Humphead wrasse - Cheilinus undulatus
                  (FR) Poisson Napoléon
                  (DE) Napoleon-Lippfisch
                  (ES) Pez napoleón
                  (IT) Pesce Napoleone
    Length:       2 m / 6 ft 7 in
    Description: "Weighing up to 200kg, this is the largest of all wrasse. It has
                  a distinctly shaped hump on its head and a pale, complex colour
                  pattern. Females are whitish and have a smaller hump, and young
                  fish have black lines behind their eyes. It normally lives
                  independently around coral reefs, but many gather together during
                  the breeding season."
    Trivia:      "[Decreasing numbers]
                  The humphead wrasse is extremely popular as an aquarium fish and
                  also in demand from shops and restaurants. But they are
                  overfished because of their popularity, leading to a drop in
                  numbers and international conservation efforts."
    123. <P19/4> Giant grouper - Epinephelus lanceolatus
                  (FR) Mérou géant
                  (DE) Riesenzackenbarsch
                  (ES) Mero lanceolado
                  (IT) Cernia gigante
    Length:       3 m / 10 ft
    Description: "With its short, stout body and large mouth, it is the largest of
                  the groupers. A carnivore which can weigh in at around 400kg, it
                  has been known to eat young sea turtles."
    [11.20]  Page 20  - Large Marine Life
    124. <P20/1> Great barracuda - Sphyraena barracuda
                  (FR) Barracuda
                  (DE) Großer Barrakuda
                  (ES) Barracuda
                  (IT) Grande barracuda
    Length:       2 m / 6 ft 7 in
    Description: "This gleaming silver fish has a large mouth lined with sharp
                  teeth. Barracudas can be told apart by the shape of their tail
                  fins, and the upper and lower points of the great barracuda's
                  tail fin are tapered with an incision in the centre."
    Trivia:      "[Nature's torpedo]
                  It is attracted to shiny objects, so if something shiny is
                  dropped into the sea it is likely to charge it. This wouldn't
                  be a problem if it was a small fish, but as it is large with
                  sharp teeth, caution is necessary."
    125. <P20/2> Shadefish - Argyrosomus regius
                  (NA) Meagre
                  (FR) Maigre commun
                  (DE) Adlerfisch
                  (ES) Corvina blanca
                  (IT) Bocca d'oro
    Length:       2 m / 6 ft 7 in
    Description: "This large, dull silver fish can make drumming noises by beating
                  an air chamber inside its body, and also croaks like a frog.
                  Large numbers of them gather in the shallows in their breeding
    126. <P20/3> Bartail flathead - Platycephalus sp
                  (FR) Platycéphale indien
                  (DE) Dunkler Plattkopf
                  (ES) Pez plano
    Length:       1 m / 3 ft 3 in
    Description: "This fish with a distinctive thin, flat head lives on the seabed
                  where its sandy colour makes it difficult for predators or prey
                  to spot it. It buries itself in the sand and generally lies still
                  during the day. The female is usually the larger of the two
                  sexes; this is because males turn into females as they mature so
                  by the time they have grown to a reasonable size they have
                  usually turned into females."
    127. <P20/4> Atlantic tarpon - Megalops atlanticus
                  (FR) Tarpon
                  (DE) Tarpun
                  (ES) Sábalo
                  (IT) Tarpone
    Length:       2.5 m / 8 ft 2 in
    Description: "Covered in large, gleaming silver scales, this ancient fish
                  displays primitive characteristics such as the shape of its jaw.
                  Its young spend time in a leptocephalus stage, which is a
                  developmental phase for eels. Little is known about this stage
                  and the connection to eels is puzzling. Sometimes called the
                  'silver king', this fish is highly sought by amateur anglers."
    [11.21]  Page 21  - Large Marine Life
    128. <P21/1> Atlantic bluefin tuna - Thunnus thynnus
                  (FR) Thon rouge du Nord
                  (DE) Roter Thun
                  (ES) Atún rojo
                  (IT) Tonno rosso
    Length:       3 m / 7 ft
    Description: "This large, shiny fish with small pectoral fins and a black head
                  is in demand as an expensive classic sushi topping. If it is
                  deprived of oxygen when captured its body temperature will rise,
                  which causes its sinews to change colour and makes its flesh less
    Trivia:      "[Keep on moving]
                  A tuna swims with its mouth open and takes oxygen from the water
                  that passes through its gills. If it stops moving, it will 
                  suffocate; this is why it lowers its metabolism and speed at
                  night but never stops swimming."
    129. <P21/2> Chinook salmon - Oncorhynchus tshawytscha
                  (FR) Saumon royal
                  (DE) Königslachs
                  (ES) Salmón real
                  (IT) Salmone reale
    Length:       1.5 m / 4 ft 11 in
    Description: "The largest member of the salmon family, it hatches in rivers
                  then swims down to the sea where it lives for several years. On
                  reaching maturity, it returns to the river it was born in to
    130. <P21/3> Striped marlin - Tetrapturus audax
                  (FR) Marlin rayé
                  (DE) Gestreifter Marlin
                  (ES) Marlín rayado
                  (IT) Marlin striato
    Length:       3.5 m / 11 ft 6 in
    Description: "Easily recognised by its long, spear-like upper jaw, the front of
                  its first dorsal fin is high then gradually dips towards the
                  back. Its ventral fins are particularly long and narrow,and
                  there are protuberances at the base of its tail fin; these give
                  the marlin dynamic lift when swimming."
    Trivia:      "[It looks like a spear, but...]
                  With the ability to charg opponents at high speed, the striped
                  marlin can deal a fatal blow even to a shark. Normally, it
                  doesn't use its upper jaw to stab but instead swings it
                  violently and then captures its weakened prey. This means it is
                  very rare to see it stab its prey."
    131. <P21/4> Indo-Pacific sailfish - Istiophorus platypterus
                  (FR) Voilier indo-pacifique
                  (DE) Indopazifischer F.cherfisch
                  (ES) Pez vela
                  (IT) Pesce vela
    Length:       3.5 m / 11 ft 6 in
    Description: "This fish has a large, sail-like dorsal fin and a long snout.
                  It suddenly unfurls its giant dorsal fin right in front of its
                  prey, confusing them and leaving them unable to swim normally.
                  It uses this opportunity to strike the fish with its long snout,
                  and then it eats the weakened prey."
    Trivia:      "[Speed king]
                  This fish's body is developed to make it swim faster. It has
                  indentations on its dorsal and pelvic fins to decrease water
                  resistance and ridges to stabilise its swimming trajectory. It
                  can reach speeds of over 100km/h and holds the title of world's
                  fastest fish."
    Notes:        It will raise its fin if you touch it
    [11.22]  Page 22  - Large Marine Life
    132. <P22/1> Olive flounder - Paralichthys olivaceus
                  (FR) Cardeau hirame
                  (DE) Hirame
                  (ES) Falso halibut de Japón
                  (IT) Falso halibut
    Length:       80 cm / 2 ft 3 in
    Description: "This flat fish has both eyes on its left side and a large mouth
                  full of sharp teeth. Its top side is normally brown and its
                  otherside is white, although its colour can change depending on
                  its.surroundings. One way to tell it apart from the similar
                  righteye.flounder is to check the direction they face when laid
                  flat; olive flounder face left and righteye flounder face right."
    Trivia:      "[Moving a single body part]
                  When young olive flounder are floating freely after hatching,
                  they have one eye on either side like any other fish. When they
                  grow to around 1mm their right eye starts to move towards the
                  left, and by the time they are 12mm it has moved over completely
                  to the left hand side. This provides the flounder with an
                  improved field of view as it lies on the sea floor."
    133. <P22/2> Olive flounder (young) - Paralichthys olivaceus
                  (FR) Cardeau hirame (jeune)
                  (DE) Hirame (JT)
                  (ES) Falso halibut de Japón (cría)
                  (IT) Falso halibut (giovane)
                  Details as above
    134. <P22/3> Coelacanth - Latimeria chalumnae
                  (FR) Coelacanthe
                  (DE) Quastenflosser
                  (ES) Celacanto
                  (IT) Celacanto
    Length:       1.8 m / 5 ft 11 in
    Description: "Thought to have existed for more than four hundred million years,
                  this is a truly ancient fish. It has more fins than a normal
                  fish, four pairs of which are uniquely shaped, muscular and
                  covered in scales. Its flesh issupposed to be oily, watery and
                  almost inedible."
    Trivia:      "[Ancestor to man]
                  The coelacanth is classed as one of the sarcopterygii, or
                  fleshy-finned fish, which are thought to be ancestors to many
                  animals including humans. These fish have fleshy fins which
                  became arms and legs as they evolved into land animals."
    135. <P22/4> Red cornetfish - Fistularia petimba
                  (FR) Cornette rouge
                  (DE) Rauer Flötenfisch
                  (ES) Corneta colorada
                  (IT) Pesce flauto
    Length:       2 m / 6 ft 7 in
    Description: "This creature is often called names like 'flutemouth' due to its
                  physical resemblance to the wind instrument. The suction power
                  of its slender snout increases when sucking in and eating small
                  creatures. When dried out, the snout is used in Chinese 
    136. <P22/5> Conger eel - Conger conger
                  (NA) European conger eel
                  (FR) Congre
                  (DE) Meeraal
                  (ES) Congrio
                  (IT) Grongo europeo
    Length:       3 m / 10 ft
    Description: "This long, thin giant black eel can weigh over 100kg. It is not
                  rare and is used as an ingredient in normal family cooking. One
                  eel can feed a large number of people."
    [11.23]  Page 23  - Large Marine Life
    137. <P23/1> Great white shark - Carcharodon carcharias
                  (FR) Grand requin blanc
                  (DE) Weißer Hai
                  (ES) Gran tiburón blanco
                  (IT) Grande squalo bianco
    Length:       7 m / 23 ft
    Description: "It feeds on large fish and marine mammals, and its sharp teeth
                  with serrated edges can easily bite through the flesh of its
                  prey. This is a dangerous animal that sometimes attacks humans,
                  but it does not target them specifically; any attacks are likely
                  to be a case of mistaken identity."
    Trivia:      "[Strongest shark in history]
                  Said to be an ancestor of the great white shark, the megalodon
                  lived approximately 20 million years ago. It was up to 15m long
                  and occupied the top spot in the ocean food chain as the
                  strongest predator. However, as the seas gradually cooled the
                  whales it hunted migrated to colder waters and the megalodon,
                  unable to adapt to the colder seas, became extinct."
    Notes:        No matter how much they may need provocatiopn or mistaken
                  identity in real life, in the game these creatures are
                  universally agressive, so keep your pulsar handy.
    138. <P23/2> Hammerhead shark - Sphyrna lewini
                  (NA) Scalloped hammerhead
                  (FR) Requin-marteau halicorne
                  (DE) Bogenstirn-Hammerhai
                  (ES) Tiburón martillo
                  (IT) Squalo martello
    Length:       4 m / 13 ft 
    Description: "Named for its distinctive head, which protrudes to the left and
                  right. Its eyes and nostrils are at the very end of each side and
                  it is said to have heightened senses of smell and sight. Its
                  unique shape also acts like a rudder, giving it the ability to
                  turn sharply. It dislikes the noise of divers' exhaled bubbles
                  and generally will not approach them, but this does not mean
                  there is no risk of attack and caution is necessary."
    Notes:        It is a memorable game experience to feed these by hand
    139. <P23/3> Grey nurse shark - Carcharias taurus
                  (NA) Sand tiger
                  (FR) Requin-taureau
                  (DE) Sandtigerhai
                  (ES) Tiburón toro
                  (IT) Squalo toro
    Length:       3 m / 10 ft
    Description: "This shark has a fearsome face but is actually relatively
                  mild-mannered. However, the International Shark Attack File,
                  which collects information on shark attacks, does list it as
                  dangerous. If you meet one, it's best not to provoke it."
    [11.24]  Page 24  - Large Marine Life
    140. <P24/1> Greenland shark - Somniosus microcephalus
                  (FR) Laimargue du Groenland
                  (DE) Grünlandhai
                  (ES) Tollo boreal
                  (IT) Squalo della Groenlandia
    Length:       6 m / 20 ft
    Description: "This large shark inhabits the depths of the Arctic Ocean. As it
                  can live deeper than 1000m, sightings are rare. It has a poison
                  in its flesh that causes a condition similar to intoxication when
                  eaten, even making it impossible to stand."
    141. <P24/2> Tiger shark - Galeocerdo cuvier
                  (FR) Requin-tigre
                  (DE) Tigerhai
                  (ES) Tiburón tigre
                  (IT) Squalo tigre
    Length:       6 m / 20 ft
    Description: "This man-eating predator is named for the stripes running down
                  its side. It eats anything; water birds, sea turtles and even
                  cans have been found in its stomach. In Asia, its fins are prized
                  as a cooking ingredient, so if caught it will probably end up
                  being eaten."
    [11.25]  Page 25  - Large Marine Life
    142. <P25/1> Whale shark - Rhincodon typus
                  (FR) Requin-baleine
                  (DE) Walhai
                  (ES) Tiburón ballena
                  (IT) Squalo balena
    Length:       12 m / 39 ft
    Description: "This is the largest fish in the world, identified by the many
                  white specks scattered across its blue back. Its mouth is
                  especially large and filled with a huge number of small teeth.
                  It feeds exclusively on small fish and plankton in the seawater
                  it inhales. It has no air bladder, but obtains buoyancy by
                  storing oil in its liver."
    Trivia:      "[How are they born?]
                  It was once thought that the whale shark was oviparous, meaning
                  that it laid eggs. But 300 individual eggshells and embryos were
                  found in the womb of a captured whale shark, and it is now
                  believed that they are ovoviviparous, meaning that eggs are
                  incubated inside the parent. The captured female was 10m long,
                  so it is possible that bigger females may produce even more
    [11.26]  Page 26  - Large Marine Life
    143. <P26/1> Basking shark - Cetorhinus maximus
                  (FR) Requin-pèlerin
                  (DE) Riesenhai
                  (ES) Tiburón peregrino
                  (IT) Squalo elefante
    Length:       9 m / 43 ft
                  I think this is a typographic error in the NA translation, it 
                  should be about 30 ft
    Description: "This is the second largest fish in the world. It lives almost
                  entirely on a diet of plankton taken in through its very large
                  mouth. Although it is no danger to man, it has become an 
                  endangered species due to indiscriminate hunting."
    Trivia:      "[Mysterious Remains]
                  Every now and again there are news reports of the remains of
                  unidentified creatures washing up on shore or being caught in
                  fishing nets. One such incident involved the rotting remains of
                  a completely unknown animal, which was thought to be some kind
                  of plesiosaur. Subsequent inspection established that it was
                  most probably the remains of a basking shark. However, the
                  possibility that it is an Unidentified Marine Animal has not
                  been ruled out."
    [11.27]  Page 27  - Large Marine Life
    144. <P27/1> Pelagic thresher shark - Alopias pelagicus
                  (FR) Requin-renard pélagique
                  (DE) Pazifischer Fuchshai
                  (ES) Tiburón zorro
                  (IT) Squalo volpe pelagico
    Length:       3.5 m / 11 ft 6 in
    Description: "The upper half of its caudal fin is very long, almost the same
                  length as its body. It uses it to swim and also to hunt; it herds
                  fish or squid into one place and beats them by swinging its tail
                  furiously before eating the weakened prey. It is said to be
                  docile and is unlikely to attack a human unless provoked."
    145. <P27/2> Great sturgeon - Huso huso
                  (FR) Esturgeon béluga
                  (DE) Beluga-Stör
                  (ES) Esturión beluga
                  (IT) Storione beluga
    Length:       3 m / 10 ft
    Description: "This species is the largest of the sturgeon family, with one fish
                  reported to be 8m long and one tonne in weight. The report is old
                  and the accuracy of the measurements is questionable, which makes
                  it hard to say if this record is true or false."
    146. <P27/3> Bowmouth guitarfish - Rhina ancylostoma
                  (FR) Angelot
                  (DE) Rundkopf-Geigenrochen
                  (ES) Pez guitarra
                  (IT) Squalo chitarra
    Length:       3 m / 10 ft
    Description: "The front half of its body resembles a ray, while the rear half
                  resembles that of a shark. Its whole body is covered in fine
                  scales, and there are a number of spines on its back. It can
                  crush and eat solid food such as shellfish and crustaceans using
                  its unusual ridge-covered teeth."
    Trivia:      "[Shark or ray?]
                  Although this species resembles both a shark and a ray, it is
                  classified as a ray. Sharks and rays can be distinguished by the
                  position of the holes which connect the gills to the outside,
                  called gill slits. Those of the ray open towards the abdomen, as
                  with this species, while those of the shark open towards the
    147. <P27/4> Dwarf sawfish - Pristis clavata
                  (FR) Poisson-scie
                  (DE) Zwerg-Sägerochen
                  (ES) Pez sierra
                  (IT) Pesce sega
    Length:       2.1 m / 7 ft
    Description: "This creature has dozens of teeth arranged in a saw-like pattern.
                  Its body is also covered with sharp scales known as placoid
                  scales. It has characteristics of both a shark and a ray, but it
                  is classified as a ray as its gills are on the ventral side. As
                  this species is very rarely captured anywhere in the world, there
                  is much that is still unknown about it."
    Trivia:      "[Useful mouth]
                  The dwarf sawfish's long mouth is particularly useful. It has
                  many uses, including swinging it like a club in order to attack
                  other creatures and using it as a spade to search for prey
                  hidden in the sand."
    [11.28]  Page 28  - Large Marine Life
    148. <P28/1> Remora - Echeneis naucrates
                  (FR) Rémora
                  (DE) Gestreifter Schiffshalter
                  (ES) Rémora
                  (IT) Remora
    Length:       80 cm / 2 ft 3 in
    Description: "This fish possesses a distinctive sucker on its head which
                  developed from one of its dorsal fins. It uses it to stick to
                  larger fish, which allows it to move around without using much
                  energy. It feeds on parasites attached to the larger fish in
                  return, so it can be described as a symbiotic relationship. It is
                  sometimes found in the stomach of its host so its services may
                  ot always be so highly regarded."
    149. <P28/2> White tip reef shark - Triaenodon obesus
                  (NA) Whitetip reef shark
                  (FR) Requin-corail
                  (DE) Weißspitzenriffhai
                  (ES) Tiburón coralino
                  (IT) Squalo pinna bianca del reef
    Length:       2 m / 6 ft 7 in
    Description: "Found in coral reef regions, this shark is active at night and
                  generally sleeps in the shade of rocks by day. It is easily
                  distinguished by the white tip of its dorsal fin. Although said
                  to be docile, the sight of a group feeding together can be a
                  stark reminder of the fact that they really are sharks."
    150. <P28/3> Banded houndshark - Triakis scyllium
                  (FR) Virli coro
                  (DE) Gebänderter Hundshai
                  (ES) Tollo rayado
    Length:       1.7 m / 5 ft 7 in
    Description: "This shark has a wide head and slightly rounded mouth surrounded
                  by two spines. It is ovoviviparous, meaning that eggs are
                  incubated inside the mother's body. It produces around twenty
                  young which are nourished by the yolk of their egg. Because it
                  lives in changing habitats, such as shallow coastal waters, it is
                  not overly affected by environmental change. It is often kept in
                  aquariums because it is docile and easy to breed."
    151. <P28/4> Epaulette shark - Hemiscyllium ocellatum
                  (FR) Requin-chabot ocellé
                  (DE) Epaulettenhai
                  (ES) Pintarroja colilarga ocelada
                  (IT) Squalo spallina
    Length:       90 cm / 2 ft 11 in
    Description: "This shark's pectoral fins are further back than usual, with a
                  large black spot outlined in white behind them. The name
                  'epaulette shark' is thought to come from its markings, which
                  resemble the shoulder markings on military uniforms. It lives and
                  hides in coral or reefs and can be seen 'walking' along the
                  seabed using its pectoral fins when looking for prey."
    [11.29]  Page 29  - Large Marine Life
    152. <P29/1> Zebra shark - Stegostoma fasciatum
                  (FR) Requin-zèbre
                  (DE) Zebrahai
                  (ES) Tiburón cebra
                  (IT) Squalo leopardo
    Length:       3.5 m / 11 ft 6 in
    Description: "This creature has a striking leopard spot pattern and a tail fin
                  nearly as long as its body. It also has several ridges on its
                  back, similar to a whale shark's. Young sharks are pale yellow
                  with black stripes, so do not resemble adults. They are most
                  active at night, and usually found on the seabed near coral
    Trivia:      "[You can't hide!]
                  Sharks have electroreceptors in their heads, known as ampullae
                  of Lorenzini, which allow them to sense the weak magnetic field
                  of other creatures. This sense is believed to be particularly
                  well developed in zebra sharks. They can even find prey hiding
                  under the sand, but there are restrictions such as limited range
                  and an inability to detect insulated creatures."
    153. <P29/2> Tasselled wobbegong - Eucrossorhinus dasypogon
                  (FR) Requin-tapis barbu
                  (DE) Fransen-Teppichhai
                  (ES) Tapicero barbudo
                  (IT) Squalo tappeto tassellato
    Length:       4 m / 13 ft
    Description: "This fish is wide and flat. Its colour and pattern blend into
                  the sand or reef where it lives, making it hard to see. Its wide
                  mouth, filled with long, sharp.teeth, extends around the front
                  edge of its head. The mouth is surrounded by long, beard-like
                  tassels that imitate bait."
    Trivia:      "[Keep off!]
                  It usually lies still on the sea floor until prey approaches or
                  it feels threatened, in which case it moves and attacks swiftly.
                  Care must be taken whenswimming in areas where it lives; it is so
                  well camouflaged that it is easy to get too close and
                  inadvertently cause it to attack."
    154. <P29/3> Japanese bullhead shark - Heterodontus japonicus
                  (FR) Requin dormeur nekozame
                  (DE) Japanischer Stierkopfhai
                  (ES) Dormilón japonés
                  (IT) Squalo testa di toro giapponese
    Length:       1 m / 3 ft 3 in
    Description: "This shark has a large head and distinctive ridges above its eyes
                  that look like cat ears or cow horns. It lies still in reef
                  crevices or on the sea floor during the day then sets out to look
                  for food at night. It preys mainly on molluscs and crustaceans,
                  using its gigantic teeth to crush and eat them."
    Trivia:      "[Mysterious objects]
                  Spiral clumps of a strange black material about 15cm long are
                  sometimes found on the sea floor. These are the eggs of the
                  Japanese bullhead.shark. They are worth seeing as they have such
                  a unique shape that the first people to find them could not
                  believe they were eggs. There is a reason for this spiral shape;
                  it makes it easy for the eggs to be snagged in rocks or embedded
                  in sand and more difficult for it to be carried away by the
    Found as:     Adult, young (below), eggs
    155. <P29/4> Japanese bullhead shark (young) - Heterodontus japonicus
                  (FR) Requin dormeur nekozame (jeune)
                  (DE) Japanischer Stierkopfhai (JT)
                  (ES) Dormilón japonés (cría)
                  (IT) Squalo testa di toro giapponese (giovane)
                  Details as above
    156. <P29/5> Blotchy swell shark (young) - Cephaloscyllium umbratile
                  (FR) Holbiche du Japon (jeune)
                  (DE) Gefleckter Schwellhai (JT)
                  (ES) Tiburón gato (cría)
                  (IT) Squalo gatto (giovane)
    Length:       1 m / 3 ft 3 in 
                  10 cm / 4 in when young, as it is in the game
    Description: "Only 10cm when young, this broad shark has narrow eyes and lives
                  on the sea bed near rocky and coral reefs. If it feels threatened
                  it can inflate its stomach by inhaling water or air."
    Trivia:      "[Long term storage]
                  A female can preserve a male's sperm inside her body for a long
                  period of time after breeding and fertilised eggs are known to
                  have been laid two years after intercourse. The eggs are about
                  10cm long with tendrils connected to each corner which help to
                  anchor the eggs to rocks or seaweed on the sea bed and stop them
                  being carried away."
    Found as:     Young, eggs
    157. <P29/6> Cloudy catshark - Scyliorhinus torazame
                  (FR) Roussette nuageuse
                  (DE) Wolken-Katzenhai
                  (ES) Alitán nubarrado
    Length:       50 cm / 1 ft 8 in
    Description: "The cloudy catshark has a fairly wide head with long and narrow
                  slit-like eyes. There is also a detailed pattern on its body.
                  Females sometimes have bite wounds on their bodies. This is
                  because, while mating, the male bites the female in order to
                  position its body."
    Trivia:      "[Soft centred]
                  Rays and sharks, including this species, are members of the
                  subclass elasmobranchii, whose skeletal structures are composed
                  of cartilage. Because cartilage does not fossilise well, only the
                  hard teeth are found in fossils of cartilaginous fish, and whole
                  bodies are almost never discovered."
    [11.30]  Page 30  - Large Marine Life
    158. <P30/1> Japanese angel shark - Squatina japonica
                  (NA) Japanese angelshark
                  (FR) Ange de mer Kasuzame
                  (DE) Japanischer Engelshai
                  (ES) Angelote japonés
                  (IT) Squalo angelo del Giappone
    Length:       1.5 m / 4 ft 11 in
    Description: "Its front half looks like that of a ray, but the rear half looks
                  like that of a shark. It lives buried in sand on the sea floor
                  and catches prey with its large mouth as it swims overhead.
                  Despite its flat, ray-like appearance, it is most definitely a
    Trivia:      "[Shark skin]
                  Sharks have countless small protuberances on their skin which are
                  said to smooth the flow of water over their bodies, helping them
                  swim more efficiently and reach higher speeds. The skin of this
                  species was once used to make handles for files and Japanese
                  swords because of its rough texture."
    159. <P30/2> Japanese eagle ray - Myliobatis tobijei
                  (FR) Raie aigle
                  (DE) Japanischer Adlerrochen
                  (ES) Raya águila
    Length:       2 m / 6 ft 7 in
    Description: "These rays have a characteristic diamond shape and long tail.
                  They swim using their large wing-like fins as if flying, and
                  sometimes swim together in groups of about a dozen. They are
                  often seen lying perfectly still on the seabed."
    160. <P30/3> Manta ray - Manta birostris
                  (FR) Raie manta
                  (DE) Mantarochen
                  (ES) Mantarraya
                  (IT) Manta gigante
    Length:       5 m / 16 ft
    Description: "Well known to the general public as well as to divers, this is
                  the world's largest ray. Each manta ray has a unique pattern of
                  black spots on its stomach which helps to tell them apart. These
                  black spots can spread across the entire stomach, making some
                  manta rays appear entirely black. They sometimes jump out of the
                  water, but this is thought to be because they are startled or
                  trying to remove parasites."
    Trivia:      "[Looks cosy?]
                  The word 'manta' also means blanket or cloak, which fits its
                  large, flat body. It has distinctive fins on either side of its
                  mouth, developed from pectoral fins. These look like horns, so
                  the manta is also known as the devilfish."
    [11.31]  Page 31  - Dolphins and Whales
    161. <P31/1> Bottlenose dolphin - Tursiops truncatus
                  (FR) Grand dauphin
                  (DE) Großer Tümmler
                  (ES) Delfín mular
                  (IT) Tursiope
    Length:       3.6 m / 12 ft
    Description: "This is the best known species of dolphin and the one most often
                  seen in aquariums. In the wild, it often forms groups, or pods,
                  of around 15. These pods can even contain several hundred 
                  dolphins. It has a habit of playing in the wake of ships or large
                  whales, and is often seen swimming alongside boats."
    Trivia:      "[Getting close to humans]
                  Some bottlenose dolphins settle in coves or coastlines, where
                  they seem to enjoy playing with humans and become famous among
                  local inhabitants. Dolphins are also used in animal-assisted
                  therapy, where a person interacts with an an animal as part of
                  their therapy. This special form of therapy is continually being
                  researched and is gaining favourable attention."
    162. <P31/2> Pacific white-sided dolphin - Lagenorhynchus obliquidens
                  (FR) Dauphin à flancs blancs
                  (DE) Weißstreifendelfin
                  (ES) Delfín de lados blancos
                  (IT) Lagenorinco dai denti obliqui
    Length:       2.4 m / 7 ft 10 in
    Description: "This dolphin has a distinctive sickle-shaped dorsal fin with two
                  suspender-like stripes running along its back. It lives in pods
                  made up of a few to several hundred animals, which jump and
                  travel around together."
    Trivia:      "[High speed swimming secrets]
                  Pacific white-sided dolphins can swim at speeds of up to 55km/h,
                  and other dolphins commonly reach 30km/h or more. Scientifically,
                  dolphins should not be able to achieve the speeds they do, and a
                  lot of research has been carried out to explain why. Some of the
                  dolphins' secrets have been learned and used in swimsuits, but
                  the overall mystery has finally been solved. It is known as
                  Gray's Paradox after the zoologist who first described it."
    163. <P31/3> Short-beaked common dolphin - Delphinus delphis
                  (FR) Dauphin commun à bec court
                  (DE) Gemeiner Delfin
                  (ES) Delfín común
                  (IT) Delfino comune
    Length:       2.5 m / 8 ft 2 in
    Description: "This dolphin is easily recognisable by its yellow and grey
                  hourglass pattern on each side. It likes to form large groups and
                  a single pod can contain over 1,000 dolphins. It is able to dive
                  to 300m in around ten minutes."
    Trivia:      "[The true dolphin]
                  When people think of dolphins, they usually think of the
                  bottlenose dolphin. But, as its name suggests, the common
                  dolphin is the real representative dolphin - the dolphin amongst
    164. <P31/4> Commerson's dolphin - Cephalorhynchus commersonii
                  (FR) Dauphin de Commerson
                  (DE) Commerson-Delfin
                  (ES) Tonina overa
                  (IT) Cefalorinco di Commerson
    Length:       1.5m / 4 ft 11 in
    Description: "Its bold black and white markings make it look like a panda,
                  although newborns are uniformly brown. The species is named after
                  the botanist who first recorded them."
    Trivia:      "[Full of life]
                  It usually lives in small groups, although very large pods are
                  sometimes seen. This particular dolphin loves to jump; six of
                  them were once recorded jumping 65 - 70 times in just 17 
    [11.32]  Page 32  - Dolphins and Whales
    165. <P32/1> Orca - Orcinus orca
                  (FR) Orque
                  (DE) Schwertwal
                  (ES) Orca
                  (IT) Orca
    Length:       8 m / 26 ft
    Description: "Easily identified by its black and white colouring and tall 
                  dorsal fin, it lives and hunts in groups. Feeding habits vary;
                  some groups only eat fish while others hunt and eat anything,
                  including birds, seals and even whales larger than themselves."
    Trivia:      "[Vocalisations]
                  The vocalisations of the orca can be divided into three distinct
                  types: click, call and whistle. Each one has a distinct use.
                  Clicks are mainly used for echolocation, while calls and whistles
                  are used for social interactions within and between groups."
    166. <P32/2> Risso's dolphin - Grampus griseus
                  (FR) Dauphin de Risso
                  (DE) Rundkopfdelfin
                  (ES) Calderón gris
                  (IT) Grampo
    Length:       4 m / 13 ft
    Description: "This grey dolphin has a large rounded head. As it grows older,
                  its skin gradually becomes white. It has no teeth in its upper
                  jaw, and sometimes no teeth at all. It swims the seas leisurely
                  in groups of up to several dozen."
    Trivia:      "[White scars]
                  Adults look white because of countless scars on their skin. All
                  dolphins and whales are injured at some point, but their scars
                  usually fade with time. This species' injuries leave permanent
                  white scars which gradually turn their entire body white as they
                  get older."
    167. <P32/3> Beluga - Delphinapterus leucas
                  (FR) Béluga
                  (DE) Beluga
                  (ES) Beluga
                  (IT) Beluga
    Length:       4.5 m / 15 ft
    Description: "This dolphin is completely white with a melon, a rounded lump of
                  fatty tissue, protruding from its forehead. The melon can change
                  shape slightly. It has a thin protrusion on its back, but no real
                  dorsal fin, and its scientific name means 'wingless white 
                  dolphin'. It lives in groups of up to a thousand or even more."
    Trivia:      "[A whale that sheds its skin]
                  Its white skin turns yellow in late spring, and in summer beluga
                  gather at inlets or shallows where fresh water flows into the sea
                  and start rubbing themselves on sand or gravel at the bottom. It
                  may be shocking to watch, but gradually the old skin falls away
                  to reveal the new and the beluga is white once again."
    168. <P32/4> False killer whale - Pseudorca crassidens
                  (FR) Fausse orque
                  (DE) Kleiner Schwertwal
                  (ES) Falsa orca
                  (IT) Pseudorca
    Length:       6 m / 20 ft
    Description: "Black with a characteristic high, curved dorsal fin and a bend
                  halfway along each of its flippers, it lives in pods of just a
                  few to dozens and can jump to the same height as a small dolphin.
                  It is often found amongst dolphins and there are some false
                  killer whale and bottlenose dolphin hybrids."
    Trivia:      "[Why 'false killer whale'?]
                  Both this name and its Latin one, pseudorca, come from its
                  resemblance to the orca - the real killer whale. The other part
                  of the Latin name, crassidens, means 'thick teeth'; it has 16 -
                  22 large teeth on each jaw. It has been known to eat small
    [11.33]  Page 33  - Dolphins and Whales
    169. <P33/1> Narwhal - Monodon monoceros
                  (FR) Narval
                  (DE) Narwal
                  (ES) Narval
                  (IT) Narvalo
    Length:       5 m / 16 ft
    Description: "Easily recognised by the male's spiralling tusk, which can be as
                  long as 3m. There are rare cases of males with two tusks and
                  females with tusks."
    Trivia:      "[Sea unicorn's horn]
                  Europeans in the Middle Ages believed that a unicorn's horn had
                  the power to negate poison, which made it more valuable than
                  gold. Unicorns may not exist, but the belief in the medicinal
                  power of a single horn was enough to see narwhal horns traded at
                  high prices."
    170. <P33/2> Spectacled porpoise - Phocoena dioptrica
                  (FR) Marsouin à lunettes
                  (DE) Brillenschweinswal
                  (ES) Marsopa de anteojos
                  (IT) Focena dagli occhiali
    Length:       2.3m / 7 ft 2 in
    Description: "The two rings around its eyes make it look as if it is wearing
                  glasses, and a black line around the mouth completes its
                  distinctive markings."
    Trivia:      "[Where is it?]
                  This porpoise is fairly rare and not often sighted but can be
                  found near Tierra del Fuego, an island at the southernmost tip
                  of South America. As there are so many in that region, they may
                  not be considered rare there."
    171. <P33/2> Amazon river dolphin - Inia geoffrensis
                  (FR) Boto
                  (DE) Amazonasdelfin
                  (ES) Delfín rosado
                  (IT) Inia
    Length:       2.5m / 8 ft 2 in
    Description: "This pinkish dolphin has a long snout and eyes that have become
                  smaller over time because of limited visibility in the murky
                  waters of the Amazon. They rely heavily on sound waves to
                  navigate their environment."
    Trivia:      "[Mysterious lover...]
                  According to legend, when night falls this dolphin turns into an
                  attractive man who seduces the village women. There is another
                  story suggesting that the dolphin changes into a beautiful woman
                  and seduces the men."
    172. <P33/3> Southern bottlenose whale - Hyperoodon planifrons
                  (FR) Hyperoodon austral
                  (DE) Südlicher Entenwal
                  (ES) Ballena nariz de botella del sur
                  (IT) Iperodonte australe
    Length:       8 m / 26 ft
    Description: "This species has a rounded head with a thin snout, making it look
                  like a bottle's neck. Several hundred thousand are believed to
                  live in the Antarctic Ocean. A closely related species, the
                  northern bottlenose whale, lives in the northern hemisphere."
    [11.34]  Page 34  - Dolphins and Whales
    173. <P34/1> Humpback whale - Megaptera novaeangliae
                  (FR) Baleine à bosse
                  (DE) Buckelwal
                  (ES) Ballena jorobada
                  (IT) Megattera
    Length:       15 m / 49 ft
    Description: "The humpback whale has distinctive elongated pectoral fins that
                  are around one third the length of its body. There are also a
                  number of lumps on its upper and lower jaws and in front of the
                  pectoral fins. The lumps on its upper jaw contain sensory hairs
                  which are used to feel water currents. It migrates seasonally
                  between warm and cold waters, and appears to not eat while
    Trivia:      "[Ever-changing music]
                  Males sing during mating season, possibly to court females. Their
                  song has a fixed structure and all males in the same area sing
                  very similar songs. The song's composition changes a little every
                  year, so they never sing the same song twice. Whale song was
                  recorded and included in a record produced for intelligent
                  extraterrestrial life which was placed on board the
                  interplanetary probe Voyager I in 1977 and launched into space."
    Found as:     Adult, young
    174. <P34/2> North Atlantic right whale - Eubalaena glacialis
                  (FR) Baleine de Biscaye
                  (DE) Atlantischer Nordkaper
                  (ES) Ballena franca
                  (IT) Balena franca nordatlantica
    Length:       16 m / 52 ft
    Description: "Its lower jaw is curved in an arc, and it has a beautifully
                  smooth back with no dorsal fin. It has protrusions on its head,
                  and the particularly large ones on the tip of its snout can be
                  used to distinguish individual whales."
    Trivia:      "[Suffering of the right whale]
                  It is a slow swimmer and its blubber causes it to float on the
                  surface even after it dies; these traits made it an attractive
                  target for whalers, as they could harvest large quantities of oil
                  and whalebone. As a result their numbers fell and they have
                  become a protected species, on the brink of extinction in some
                  areas. However, numbers are recovering in other areas, so
                  conservation is having an effect for this species."
    [11.35]  Page 35  - Dolphins and Whales
    175. <P35/1> Pygmy sperm whale - Kogia breviceps
                  (FR) Cachalot pygmée
                  (DE) Zwergpottwal
                  (ES) Cachalote pigmeo
                  (IT) Cogia di De Blainville
    Length:       3 m / 10 ft
    Description: "This small whale is about the same size as a dolphin. When it
                  dives from the surface, it enters the water gently without
                  slapping the water with its tailfin. As it doesn't make a huge
                  splash like other whales, it is considered a little boring."
    176. <P35/2> Antarctic minke whale - Balaenoptera bonaerensis
                  (FR) Baleine de Minke
                  (DE) Südlicher Zwergwal
                  (ES) Rorcual antártico
                  (IT) Balenottera minore antartica
    Length:       8 m / 26 ft
    Description: "This relatively small, streamlined whale can be found in both the
                  southern and northern hemispheres, but each group has a slightly
                  different diet. Those in the southern hemisphere eat plankton and
                  krill, while those in the northern hemisphere eat krill, herring
                  and other small fish
    [11.36]  Page 36  - Dolphins and Whales
    177. <P36/1> Grey whale - Eschrichtius robustus
                  (FR) Baleine grise
                  (DE) Grauwal
                  (ES) Ballena gris
                  (IT) Balena grigia
    Length:       14 m / 46 ft
    Description: "This whale is grey with white and orange spots. These spots are
                  not patterns on the whale's skin, but groups of corn barnacles or
                  the parasitic whale louse."
    Trivia:      "[Mothering instincts]
                  Their annual migration covers some 20,000km, said to be the
                  longest of any mammal. In the winter they move to their breeding
                  grounds where females give birth to a single calf. The mother
                  whale stays close to the calf while rearing it and will protect
                  it with no consideration for her own safety, even taking on
                  whaling boats."
    178. <P36/2> Sperm whale - Physeter macrocephalus
                  (FR) Cachalot
                  (DE) Pottwal
                  (ES) Cachalote
                  (IT) Capodoglio
    Length:       18 m / 59 ft
    Description: "Its square head takes up almost one third of its body length and
                  there are rows of large conical teeth in its lower jaw. The teeth
                  in its upper jaw never erupt. As it eats its prey, usually squid,
                  whole it needs no teeth to feed. Their teeth may instead be used
                  for fighting between males or bringing food back to calves."
    Trivia:      "[Maternal care]
                  Calves live with their mothers, but they cannot dive as far, so
                  when the mother goes down to find food, the calf stays at the
                  surface. Females and calves live together in pods and females
                  stagger their dives so that calves are not left alone and exposed
                  to danger. If an orca or other predator targets a calf, the
                  females will close ranks and surround the calf to protect it.
                  This is sometimes.called the 'marguerite formation' after the
                  flower it resembles."
    [11.37]  Page 37  - Dolphins and Whales
    179. <P37/1> Blue whale - Balaenoptera musculus
                  (FR) Baleine bleue
                  (DE) Blauwal
                  (ES) Ballena azul
                  (IT) Balenottera azzurra
    Length:       32 m / 105 ft
    Description: "Known for its huge bluish-grey body, this is the largest mammal
                  on Earth with some over 30m long. The water it blows can reach
                  10m high, and the 60 or more ventral pleats in its throat open
                  when it feeds. It travels widely, and its call contains low
                  frequency wavelengths that travel well in water and allow it to
                  communicate with other whales for up to 150km."
    Trivia:      "[Extinction through progress?]
                  Hunting blue whales has always been difficult because of their
                  size and speed, and the total population was once around 300,000.
                  But with the introduction of faster whaling vessels and explosive
                  harpoons at the end of the 19th century the blue whale was hunted
                  to the brink of extinction. Even now, decades after whaling bans
                  were enacted, the blue whale population is less than 5,000 and
                  they are still at risk of extinction."
    [11.38]  Page 38  - Deep Sea Life
    180. <P38/1> Splendid alfonsino - Beryx splendens
                  (FR) Béryx long
                  (DE) Südlicher Kaiserbarsch
                  (ES) Palometa roja
                  (IT) Berice rosso
    Length:       60 cm / 2 ft
    Description: "This red fish can be identified by its large golden eyes. Though
                  normally seen as nothing more than a menu item, primitive bones
                  found in its skull have led people to believe that this fish has
                  existed for approximately one hundred milion years. It is a fine
                  example of an ancient fish."
    Trivia:      "[Golden eyes]
                  Inside the eyes of the splendid alfonsino is a tissue known as
                  the tapetum. This tissue reflects light entering the eye and 
                  stimulates the photo-receptive cells in the eye a second time,
                  helping the fish to see using the limited amount of light that
                  reaches the dark sea depths. The light reflected by the tapetum
                  gives the eyes their golden colour."
    181. <P38/2> Common fangtooth - Anoplogaster cornuta
                  (FR) Poisson-ogre
                  (DE) Fangzahnfisch
                  (ES) Pez abisal con colmillos
                  (IT) Anoplogaster cornuta
    Length:       15 cm / 6 in
    Description: "This fish's massive mouth has an upper jaw that stretches back
                  behind its eyes and long, large teeth. It may not look like it,
                  but it is related to the splendid alfonsino. It floats in the
                  water waiting for prey, and when it finds some it opens its large
                  mouth and skewers them with its long teeth. If its teeth become
                  too big it cannot close its mouth fully."
    182. <P38/3> Fanfin - Caulophryne pelagica
                  (FR) Baudroie à longues nageoires
                  (DE) Fächerflosser
                  (ES) Pez de aleta de abanico
    Length:       50 cm / 1 ft 8 in
    Description: "Known for its elongated thread-like fins, it also has long
                  protuberances on its head, but these do not emit light. The
                  male's body is extremely small, only one-tenth the size of the
    Trivia:      "[Two become one]
                  When a male finds a female, he attaches himself to her body.
                  This adhesion goes as far as the blood stream, and the male
                  nourishes himself from the female. Although this seems like an
                  entirely one-sided parasitic relationship, it is also favourable
                  for the female. It is thought that the female can have the male's
                  sperm release at the optimal time for fertilisation. Sometimes
                  several males can be seen attached to a single female."
    183. <P38/4> Pelican eel - Eurypharynx pelecanoides
                  (FR) Grand-gousier pélican
                  (DE) Pelikanaal
                  (ES) Pez pelícano
                  (IT) Anguilla pellicano
    Length:       75 cm / 2 ft 6 in
    Description: "This eel has a giant sack-like mouth and a long, soft thin body
                  with no scales. The tip of its tail has a luminescent organ which
                  it is thought to use to attract prey."
    Trivia:      "[Eats whenever it can]
                  Because there is so little life at the depths of the ocean, this
                  eel doesn't know when the next opportunity to feed will come.
                  This is why it developed its giant sack-like mouth in order to
                  eat much more food in a single meal. It has small eyes located on
                  the tip of this giant mouth."
    184. <P38/5> Snailfish - Crystallichthys matsushimae
                  (ES) Pez caracol
    Length:       42 cm / 1 ft 5 in
    Description: "This soft, gelatinous pink fish inhabits reefs hundreds of metres
                  down and sticks to rocks using the suction pads located on its
                  left and right ventral fins."
    Trivia:      "[Blending in by standing out]
                  Lots of creatures living at the same depth as the snailfish are
                  some shade of red. By the time light reaches these depths, all
                  colours except blue have been absorbed by the water. The
                  remaining blue light is then absorbed by these red-bodied
                  creatures, making them almost invisible to predators."
    185. <P38/6> Sea pig - Scotoplanes globosa
                  (DE) Seegurke
                  (ES) Holoturia
                  (IT) Cetriolo di mare
    Length:       10 cm / 4 in 
    Description: "This creature is pure white with four large protuberances on its
                  back. It has between five and seven pairs of legs and swims
                  casually along the seabed as if walking. It may look nice enough
                  at first glance, but turning it over reveals a mouth full of
                  countless tentacles which may make you flinch."
    186. <P38/7> Emperor nautilus - Nautilus pompilius
                  (NA) Chambered nautilus 
                  (FR) Nautile
                  (DE) Schiffsboot
                  (ES) Nautilo
    Length:       20 cm / 8 in
    Description: "Its spiral shell has a radial pattern of red-tinged brown lines.
                  It has so-called pinhole eyes, which have no lens and leave it
                  with poor eyesight. Its ancestors lived about five hundred
                  million years ago, when ammonites and other large species
                  thrived. However, their numbers fell due to subsequent climate
                  change, natural selection and other factors, and only the
                  nautilidae family survived to the present day."
    Trivia:      "[Mini submarine]
                  One of its tentacles developed into a funnel called a hyponome,
                  which it uses to expel water to control buoyancy and propel
                  itself. Its shell is divided by thin walls into a number of
                  chambers called camerae, with a slender tube running through
                  them. These chambers contain low pressure gases and liquids, and
                  the nautilus uses its hyponome to control the volume of fluid
                  and so finely manage its buoyancy. Nautilus also means 'sailor'
                  and was the name of the world's first nuclear submarine."
    187. <P38/8> Popeye grenadier - Coryphaenoides cinereus
                  (FR) Grenadier
                  (DE) Riesen-Grenadierfisch
                  (ES) Granadero gris
    Length:       50 cm / 1 ft 8 in
    Description: "This fish has large eyes and a body that narrows towards the
                  tail. Larvae of the macrouridae family, such as this species,
                  are rarely encountered as they never live near the surface. As
                  such, there are many unknowns concerning its ecology."
    Trivia:      "[Different scales]
                  The macrouridae family divided into subfamilies as a result of
                  evolving and adapting to different environments. The macrourinae
                  subfamily have ctenoid scales with small spines at the rear, and
                  the bathygadinae subfamily have smooth cycloid scales. This
                  species is a member of the macrourinae subfamily and has ctenoid
    [11.39]  Page 39  - Deep Sea Life
    188. <P39/1> Barreleye - Winteria telescopa
                  (FR) Poisson-étoile bathypélagique
                  (DE) Gespensterfisch
                  (ES) Pez cabeza de cristal
    Length:       15 cm / 6 in
    Description: "This fish has particularly well-developed eyes; they are large,
                  protruding and cylindrical, and look upwards at an angle. Other
                  fish of this species have eyes that look directly upwards and
                  some even have four eyes."
    189. <P39/2> Humpback anglerfish - Melanocetus johnsonii
                  (FR) Baudroie abyssale
                  (DE) Buckliger Anglerfisch
                  (ES) Rape abisal
    Length:       8 cm / 3 in
    Description: "This fish has a huge mouth and long teeth, along with a special
                  glowing protrusion growing from its head. It waves the protrusion
                  to lure prey close, then eats it whole."
    Trivia:      "[Bigmouth]
                  This anglerfish can puff up its body to swallow prey that is even
                  larger than itself, but if the prey is too large the anglerfish
                  may also die. Its teeth can be pushed inwards but not outwards,
                  so prey cannot escape after being swallowed."
    190. <P39/3> Firefly squid - Watasenia scintillans
                  (FR) Encornet lumière
                  (DE) Leuchtkalmar
                  (ES) Enoploluria centellante
                  (IT) Calamaro-lucciola
    Length:       7 cm / 3 in
    Description: "The hundreds of light-emitting organs on its body make this squid
                  shine with a bluish-white light. It has ten arms, but only the
                  fourth pair emit any light; there are three especially bright
                  light-emitting organs at their tips which are used for
                  intimidating other creatures. It spends the day at depths of
                  several hundred metres, returning to the surface when night
    Trivia:      "[Light disguise]
                  It can sense how much light is coming from the surface and adjust
                  the brightness of the light from its luminescent organs, making
                  it hard for predators to detect it from underneath as its
                  silhouette blends into the background."
    191. <P39/4> Glass squid - Cranchia scabra
                  (FR) Calmar translucide
                  (DE) Gallertkalmar
                  (ES) Calamar de cristal
    Length:       12 cm / 4.5 in
    Description: "A barrel-shaped squid whose rough surface is covered with
                  star-shaped protuberances. It has fourteen luminous spots around
                  its large eyes, which are actually organs called photophores."
    Trivia:      "[What's inside?]
                  This species keeps a special fluid, lighter than salt water, in
                  its rounded body to aid buoyancy. It makes up more than 60% of
                  its body weight!"
    192. <P39/5> Galatheid crab - Shinkaia crosnieri
                  (DE) Springkrebs
                  (ES) Cangrejo abisal
                  (IT) Shinkaia crosnieri
    Length:       8 cm / 3 in
    Description: "This creature is white, with hair on its belly and legs. While it
                  is a member of the lobster family, it looks more like a crab
                  because its tail is bent towards its stomach. It seems to have
                  only four pairs of legs, but it actually has five like all
                  lobsters; the last pair are almost too small to be visible."
    Trivia:      "[Growing their own food]
                  This species lives near hydrothermal vents which feed bacteria
                  with the minerals they release. Galatheid crabs let the bacteria
                  live in the hair on their bodies, then feed on them once they
                  have grown. As the water around the vents is not very hot, the
                  crabs do not need to be resistant to heat. Also, they do not turn
                  red when boiled."
    193. <P39/6> Deep-sea blind shrimp - Alvinocaris longirostris
                  (FR) Crevette à long rostre
                  (DE) Alvinocaris longirostris
                  (ES) Gamba abisal
                  (IT) Gambero degli abissi
    Length:       3 cm / 1 in
    Description: "You can see right through its white body to its transparent
                  internal organs. It has bacteria living in its gills, but it's
                  not clear what purpose they serve."
    Trivia:      "[Thermal sensors]
                  These shrimp live in a very dangerous area near hydro-thermal
                  vents which spout water at approximately 300°C. Special
                  heat-sensitive organs on their back help them to avoid the hot
                  water. Specimens with partially melted bodies have been found,
                  so even they need to be careful."
    194. <P39/7> Sea gooseberry - Pleurobrachia pileus
                  (FR) Groseille de mer
                  (DE) Seestachelbeere
                  (ES) Grosella de mar
    Length:       10 cm / 4 in
    Description: "This variety of comb jellyfish is spherical with eight organs
                  extending around its body called comb plates, due to being
                  covered in fine hair. The combs reflect light in all the colours
                  of the rainbow. Even ones from the dark ocean depths are 
                  beautiful when illuminated.
    Trivia:      "[Long feelers]
                  It has two sticky, comb-like feelers hanging from its body which
                  catch the tiny animals it feeds on. The species is also equipped
                  with both male and female sex organs which allows it to reproduce
    195. <P39/8> Giant sea spider - Colossendeis colossea
                  (FR) Araignée de mer colosse
                  (DE) Colossendeis colossea
                  (ES) Araña de mar gigante
                  (IT) Colossendeis colossea
    Length:       35 cm / 1 ft 2 in
    Description: "Its long, narrow red body has four pairs of long legs and two
                  pairs of shorter ones which contain its intestines and
                  reproductive organs. The male protects the eggs inside one pair
                  of its shorter legs known as ovigers. Although it looks like a
                  land-based spider, it is classified as a completely separate
    [11.40]  Page 40  - Deep Sea Life
    196. <P40/1> Ocean sunfish - Mola mola
                  (FR) Poisson-lune
                  (DE) Mondfisch
                  (ES) Pez luna
                  (IT) Pesce luna
    Length:       3 m / 10 ft
    Description: "Easily recognised for its large elliptical body and 
                  startled-looking face, it has no clearly defined tail fin but
                  instead has a rounded clavus, a rudder-like fin formed from the
                  dorsal and.anal fins. It has been seen jumping above the water,
                  as.well as floating on its side. It may do this to remove
                  parasites, which either fall off from the impact or are eaten
                  by birds."
    Trivia:      "[Running the gauntlet]
                  The ocean sunfish produces more eggs than any other animal, as
                  many as three hundred million. Most of these are devoured by
                  other creatures and only a few reach adulthood. Incidentally,
                  the young are born with spines."
    197. <P40/2> Opah - Lampris guttatus
                  (FR) Lampris
                  (DE) Gotteslachs
                  (ES) Pez luna real
                  (IT) Pesce re
    Length:       2 m / 6 ft 7 in
    Description: "This fish is oval, with a characteristic red mouth, back and
                  fins. Its slightly protruding mouth has no teeth at all.Young
                  opah bear a striking resemblance to sunfish."
    Trivia:      "[Looks can be deceptive]
                  As it looks like a mola mola, which is often called a sunfish,
                  the opah has become known as the moonfish. However, it is a
                  completely different species and more closely related to the
    198. <P40/3> Polka-dot ribbonfish - Desmodema polystictum
                  (DE) Bandfisch
                  (ES) Pez cinta moteado
    Length:       1 m / 3 ft 3 in
    Description: "Its thin body starts off wide at the head and tapers down towards
                  the tail. Infants have elongated pectoral fins and spots on their
                  bodies. As it matures, the pectoral fins shorten and the spots
                  fade, leaving the adult fish without either of these distinctive
                  features. It normally lives at depths of hundreds of metres, but
                  is very occasionally seen in shallow waters."
    Trivia:      "[Strange swimmer]
                  This species has a unique way of swimming: it raises its head
                  and waves its dorsal fin, which runs from the top of its head to
                  the tip of its tail, which results in it swimming in a slanted
                  upright position.
    199. <P40/4> Vampire squid - Vampyroteuthis infernalis
                  (FR) Vampire des enfers
                  (DE) Vampirtintenfisch
                  (ES) Calamar vampiro
                  (IT) Calamaro vampiro
    Length:       30 cm / 1 ft
    Description: "Easily recognised by its wing-shaped fins, eight arms and two
                  extended thread-like organs. It raises its tentacles to cover its
                  body in a defensive posture when it feels threatened. It has
                  several light-producing organs and can release a viscous
                  luminescent fluid from the tips of its tentacles. It uses these
                  abilities freely to defend itself from predators by diverting
                  their attention."
    Trivia:      "[Hellish messenger]
                  Its scientific name, vampyroteuthis infernalis, literally means
                  'vampire squid from hell'. However, this species is not a squid,
                  nor does it suck.blood, so the scientific name probably comes
                  from its appearance. Incidentally, although it is not a squid,
                  it isn't an octopus either. It is a creature closely related to
                  the ancestors of squids and octopuses."
    200. <P40/5> Giant isopod - Bathynomus giganteus
                  (FR) Bathynome géant
                  (DE) Riesenassel
                  (ES) Isópodo gigante
                  (IT) Isopode gigante
    Length:       35 cm / 1 ft 2 in
    Description: "These alien-looking creatures live deep down on the sea bed where
                  they gather around the carcasses of whales and fish and strip
                  them of meat until only the bones remain. If you're interested,
                  you should turn one over to see another sight that will stay with
                  you for a while."
    Trivia:      "[Surprisingly popular]
                  A lot of people might feel unsettled at the sight of these
                  creatures, but there are more than a few who find them
                  fascinating precisely because of their appearance. There is at
                  least one young woman in Paoul who would not hesitate to say how
                  cute she finds them, namely Océane."
    201. <P40/6 >Longnose lancetfish - Alepisaurus ferox
                  (FR) Cavalo féroce
                  (DE) Lanzenfisch
                  (ES) Lanzón picudo
                  (IT) Sauro feroce
    Length:       2 m / 6 ft 7 in
    Description: "This fish is long and slender, and has a large mouth with sharp
                  teeth. It has a fleshy protrusion to the rear of its dorsal fin,
                  known as the adipose fin, whose function is unknown. It is very
                  soft because a large portion of its body is made up  of water."
    Trivia:      "[Voracious eater]
                  Its insatiable appetite leads it to swallow fish, squid and other
                  prey whole - even other fish of the same species. Plastic and
                  other rubbish has also been found in its stomach. It seems to
                  swallow up anything that will fit in its mouth!"
    [11.41]  Page 41  - Deep Sea Life
    202. <P41/1> Megamouth shark - Megachasma pelagios
                  (FR) Requin grande gueule
                  (DE) Riesenmaulhai
                  (ES) Tiburón bocudo
                  (IT) Megamouth
    Length:       5.6 m / 18 ft
    Description: "As the name suggests, it has a large head with a gigantic mouth.
                  It spends the day at depths of several hundred metres, before
                  returning to the surface during the night. Although around 30
                  years have passed since it was discovered, it is rarely captured,
                  and so there is still much that is not known about this shark."
    Trivia:      "[Inside the jaws]
                  Although it has a gigantic mouth, it feeds on plankton and
                  jellyfish, and so does not possess the sharp teeth of other
                  sharks. Instead it has countless teeth only millimetres in size.
                  Also, when it opens its jaws, a white line appears on the tip of
                  its snout. Because this white colour stands out at night and in
                  dark places like the deep sea, it is thought that it serves to
                  entice creatures as food."
    203. <P41/2> Goblin shark - Mitsukurina owstoni
                  (FR) Requin-lutin
                  (DE) Koboldhai
                  (ES) Tiburón duende
                  (IT) Squalo goblin
    Length:       3.5m / 11 ft 6 in
    Description: "The front of this creature's head is elongated, giving it a
                  monstrous appearance. It is white with a hint of pink, and when
                  it dies it becomes red due to congested blood. As time passes,
                  it eerily changes to a chestnut colour. It feeds on creatures of
                  the ocean floor, protruding its jaws and swallowing down prey.
                  This is when it looks especially monstrous."
    204. <P41/3> Frilled shark - Chlamydoselachus anguineus
                  (FR) Requin-lézard
                  (DE) Kragenhai
                  (ES) Tiburón anguila
                  (IT) Squalo frangiato
    Length:       2 m / 6 ft 7 in
    Description: "Named for the frill shape of its six large gills, it has only one
                  dorsal fin. Its three-pronged teeth are very primitive and only
                  otherwise seen in fossils."
    Trivia:      "[The legendary sea serpent?]
                  Could this shark be behind the legends of giant sea serpents
                  heard in many parts of the world? Its long, slender body and less
                  than charming looks fit the description, but at two metres or
                  less in length it is unlikely to be related to a legendary beast
                  said to have wrapped itself around boats. The truth behind these
                  stories of sea monsters remains a mystery."
    205. <P41/4> Bluntnose sixgill shark - Hexanchus griseus
                  (FR) Requin-griset
                  (DE) Sechskiemerhai
                  (ES) Cañabota gris
                  (IT) Squalo capopiatto
    Length:       4.2 m / 14 ft
    Description: "This fish has characteristics of ancient sharks, such as a
                  single dorsal fin and six gill slits. Its snout is connected to
                  its skull at two points, which gives its jaw less freedom of
                  movement than other modern sharks' jaws. It also has beautiful
                  green luminescent eyes. It lives at depths of several hundred
                  metres, rising to the surface at night."
    Trivia:      "[Two types of tooth]
                  The shape of the teeth is different for each jaw. The upper jaw
                  has long, sharp teeth used to catch prey, while the wide, thick
                  teeth on the bottom jaw are used to chew food."
    [11.42]  Page 42  - Deep Sea Life
    206. <P42/1> Giant oarfish - Regalecus glesne
                  (NA) Oarfish
                  (FR) Régalec
                  (DE) Riemenfisch
                  (ES) Pez remo
                  (IT) Re di aringhe
    Length:       10 m / 33 ft
    Description: "Its fins are red with the front of the dorsal fin and the ventral
                  fin elongated into fine fibres. It lives at depths of several
                  hundred metres and appears to swim at an angle. It rarely comes
                  into contact with humans, so very little is known about its
    Trivia:      "[Japanese mermaids]
                  Japan has its own records of mermaids, which say they have long
                  bodies and a white head with long red hair; just like the giant
                  oarfish. While different from the common image of a mermaid as
                  having the upper body of a beautiful woman and the lower body of
                  a fish, it is still a beautiful legend."
    207. <P42/2> Giant siphonophore - Praya dubia
                  (FR) Siphonophore géant
                  (DE) Staatsqualle
                  (ES) Joroba dudosa de mar
    Length:       40 m / 130 ft
    Description: "This creature is made up of an umbrella called a swimming bell
                  and extremely long, thread-like organs. It is not one single
                  animal but is actually made up of a huge number of tiny
                  organisms, making the species a living colony. Each individual
                  organism has its own duties, such as feeding, reproducing, attack
                  or defence, so it can cope with anything."
    Trivia:      "[Big or small]
                  When people talk about.plankton, miniscule creatures usually come
                  to mind. However, this 40m long species is actually a type of
                  plankton. Plankton is actually defined as a floating creature
                  that is unable to resist ocean currents and has no swimming
                  ability; it is not related to size."
    208. <P42/3> Giant squid - Architeuthis dux
                  (FR) Calmar géant
                  (DE) Riesenkalmar
                  (ES) Calamar gigante
                  (IT) Calamaro gigante
    Length:       18 m / 59 ft
    Description: "There are eight long arms and another two massively long
                  tentacles, over 10m long, hanging from its enormous body. With
                  eyes reaching 50cm.in diameter, it also boasts the biggest eyes
                  of any living.creature. It contains a lot of ammonium chloride,
                  so does not taste very nice."
    Trivia:      "[Greatest size]
                  Although not officially recorded, there have been reports of a
                  27m long giant squid. The marks of enormous suction pads have
                  also been found on sperm whales, which eat giant squid. This
                  suggests that there may be giant squid bigger than those
                  officially documented. The credibility of old reports is low, and
                  as the.suction marks on whales increase in size as the whale
                  grows it is not yet clear how large giant squid can grow."
    [11.43]  Page 43  - Shore Life
    209. <P43/1> Emperor penguin - Aptenodytes forsteri
                  (FR) Manchot empereur
                  (DE) Kaiserpinguin
                  (ES) Pingüino emperador
                  (IT) Pinguino imperatore
    Length:       1.3 m / 4 ft 4 in
    Description: "This is the largest of all penguins, weighing up to 40kg. It has
                  a thick layer of blubber underneath its plumage which makes it
                  resistant to cold. A bright yellow patch starts near its ears and
                  fades out towards its chest."
    Trivia:      "[A parent's duties]
                  The female penguin lays only one egg, without making a nest, then
                  leaves to gather food. The male balances the egg on its feet and
                  keeps it warm under the fold of its stomach. The female is gone
                  for about 60 days, and as the male goes without food all this
                  time his body weight drops sharply. If the egg hatches before
                  the female returns, the male raises the chick on 'penguin milk'
                  which he secretes from his gullet."
    Found as:     Adult, young
    210. <P43/2> Gentoo penguin - Pygoscelis papua
                  (FR) Manchot papou
                  (DE) Eselspinguin
                  (ES) Pingüino de pico rojo
                  (IT) Pinguino Papua
    Length:       90 cm / 2 ft 11 in
    Description: "It has white feathers running across the top of its head,
                  connecting its eyes. In order to protect eggs and chicks from
                  meltwater, nests are fairly high up and comprise of piles of
                  pebbles. If an enemy approaches while the egg is being warmed,
                  the penguin will stick out its neck, point its beak towards the
                  rival and cry out to drive them away. They sometimes approach
                  the opponent and attack them."
    Trivia:      "[Born in the South?]
                  The 'papua' in the scientific name is a reference to Papua New
                  Guinea. However, this was actually a naming mistake as this
                  species does not inhabit Papua New Guinea."
    Found as:     Adult, young
    211. <43/3> Adelie penguin - Pygoscelis adeliae
                  (NA) Adélie penguin
                  (FR) Manchot Adélie
                  (DE) Adeliepinguin
                  (ES) Pingüino de Adelia
                  (IT) Pinguino di Adelia
    Height:       75 cm / 2 ft 6 in
    Description: "It has a distinctive angular head with short decorative
                  feathers. A ring of white feathers around its eyes creates the
                  illusion of big, round eyes. It keeps its eggs warm on a nest
                  of pebbles to stop them coming into direct contact with the ice
                  or snow. A large number of small pebbles must be gathered to make
                  these nests, so pebbles are often fought over. They may be
                  snatched violently or stealthily swiped while the nest is
    Trivia:      "[Day care]
                  When the chicks grow a little, their parents are able to go in
                  search of food but they must leave the chicks alone to do so.
                  When their parents leave, the chicks gather together and form a
                  crèche which is defended by young birds and adults who have
                  failed to mate that season. This makes it difficult for predators
                  to target the chicks. These penguins prefer eating krill, but the
                  percentage of fish in their diet increases while they are
                  bringing up their chicks."
    Found as:     Adult, young
    212. <P43/4> Rockhopper penguin - Eudyptes chrysocome
                  (FR) Gorfou sauteur
                  (DE) Felsenpinguin
                  (ES) Pingüino de penacho amarillo
                  (IT) Eudipte crestato
    Height:       55 cm / 1 ft 10 in
    Description: "This penguin is easily recognised by the distinctive,
                  eyebrow-like decorative feathers above its eyes and the way it
                  hops around. Males show a unique behaviour known as a display,
                  where they stick out their neck, raise their beak to the sky and
                  sing while swinging their head in an arc from side to side. This
                  is thought to be a way of marking territory and establishing
                  themselves as males."
    Found as:     Adult, young
    213. <P43/5> African penguin - Spheniscus demersus
                  (FR) Manchot du Cap
                  (DE) Brillenpinguin
                  (ES) Pingüino de El Cabo
                  (IT) Pinguino del Capo
    Height:       70 cm / 2 ft 4 in
    Description: "This penguin is black and white with a more complex pattern than
                  other penguins. It has an area of pink exposed skin around its
                  eyes. They normally lay two eggs, with the first to be laid
                  larger than the second. Sometimes especially small eggs are laid,
                  but they won't hatch as they are unfertilised."
    Trivia:      "[Fasting season]
                  After breeding, this penguin has a moulting season when it
                  changes its plumage. It loses body heat easily at this time and
                  is unable to dive for food in the sea, so it stays on the shore
                  without eating. It has to eat a lot before the moulting season
                  starts so it can sustain itself. It takes around 18 days for the
                  African penguin to moult, and it loses about 150g of body weight
                  daily during that period."
    Found as:     Adult, young
    214. <P43/6> Chinstrap penguin - Pygoscelis antarctica
                  (FR) Manchot à jugulaire
                  (DE) Zügelpinguin
                  (ES) Pingüino barbijo
                  (IT) Pinguino antartico
    Height:       75 cm / 2 ft 6 in
    Description: "They have a white face with a characteristic black line at their
                  throat which gives them their name. They are found on Antarctic
                  islands, which is reflected in their scientific name, pygoscelis
    Found as:     Adult only
    215. <P43/7> Little penguin - Eudyptula minor
                  (FR) Manchot pygmée
                  (DE) Zwergpinguin
                  (ES) Pingüino azul
                  (IT) Pinguino minore blu
    Height:       40 cm / 1 ft 4 in
    Description: "The smallest of all penguins, weighing just over 1kg. It has
                  long and short calls which can be used to mark territory and
                  communicate with or identify other penguins. While other species
                  walk upright, this species walks leaning forward and so is
                  thought to be more primitive."
    Found as:     Adult, young
    [11.44]  Page 44  - Shore Life
    216. <P44/1> Cape fur seal - Arctocephalus pusillus
                  (FR) Otarie à fourrure d'Afrique du Sud
                  (DE) Südafrikanischer Seebär
                  (ES) Oso marino de El Cabo
                  (IT) Otaria orsina del Capo
    Length:       2.3m / 7 ft 6 in
    Description: "With a large nose and a body weight exceeding 300kg, this seal is
                  the largest fur seal. Although born with a black body, it becomes
                  grey as it matures. Despite normally living in groups of a dozen
                  or so, they can also sometimes be seen in their tens of thousands
                  near to breeding grounds."
    Found as:     Adult, young
    217. <P44/2> Antarctic fur seal - Arctocephalus gazella
                  (FR) Otarie de Kerguelen
                  (DE) Antarktischer Seebär
                  (ES) Lobo fino antártico
                  (IT) Otaria orsina antartica
    Length:       2 m / 6 ft 7 in
    Description: "These seals are grey or brown, and the male has long whiskers.
                  As their name suggests, they were once hunted extensively for
                  their fur, almost to the point of extinction. Laws protecting
                  them have resulted in a great increase in their numbers."
    Found as:     Adult only
    218. <P44/3> California sea lion - Zalophus californianus
                  (FR) Otarie de Californie
                  (DE) Kalifornischer Seelöwe
                  (ES) Lobo marino de California
                  (IT) Leone marino californiano
    Length:        2.4m / 7 ft 10 in
    Description: "This sea lion's short fur can be glossy black or matte brown.
                  Males have a distinctive mane around their neck. With five
                  webbed digits on its legs, and flippers more developed than those
                  of other sea lions, it can also move nimbly on land. It is
                  polygamous, with a male creating a harem of over ten females.
                  Because of this, the male patrols to protect against other males
                  encroaching on his turf and to prevent females escaping."
    Found as:     Adult, young
    219. <P44/4> South American sea lion - Otaria flavescens
                  (FR) Otarie à crinière
                  (DE) Mähnenrobbe
                  (ES) Lobo marino sudamericano
                  (IT) Leone marino sudamericano
    Length:       2.6 m / 8 ft 6 in
    Description: "This sea lion has brown hair with a black tinge and a thick layer
                  of blubber underneath its skin. The male sea lion also has a
                  light brown mane around its neck. It primarily eats fish and
                  squid, though it has also been known to eat penguins."
    Trivia:      "[Golden opportunities]
                  The South American sea lion breeds on the Valdes Peninsula in
                  Argentina, which is listed as a World Heritage Site. During
                  mating season, large numbers of sea lions gather, presenting a
                  golden opportunity for breeding. Sharks also appear in droves at
                  this time, attacking sea lions near the shore. Although this is
                  not unusual in itself, it means that the sharks know to gather at
                  the same time for their own golden opportunity to hunt."
    Found as:     Adult, young
    [11.45]  Page 45  - Shore Life
    220. <P45/1> Steller sea lion - Eumetopias jubatus
                  (FR) Lion de mer de Steller
                  (DE) Stellerscher Seelöwe
                  (ES) Lobo marino de Steller
                  (IT) Leone marino di Steller
    Length:       3 m / 10 ft
    Description: "The largest of the sea lion family, males can weigh up to a
                  tonne. Living in packs, the males form harems of up to several
                  dozen females. Hunted as pests and suffering from a diminishing
                  food supply, they are now in danger of becoming extinct."
    Found as:     Adult only
    221. <P45/2> Walrus (male) - Odobenus rosmarus
                  (FR) Morse (mâle)
                  (DE) Walross (m)
                  (ES) Morsa
                  (IT) Tricheco (maschio)
    Length:       4 m / 13 ft
    Description: "This mammal has a thick pelt and a layer of blubber. The length
                  of its two tusks depends on its gender; a female's only grow to
                  40cm, while a male's tusks can reach up to 1m in length. The
                  tusks are used for pulling itself out of the water and fighting
                  between males. The walrus tends to form large groups, and
                  thousands can be seen gathered together."
    Trivia:      "[King of the North]
                  Although both polar bears and walruses inhabit the Arctic Circle,
                  attacks by the polar bear on the walrus are rare. As the polar
                  bear is likely to be severely injured in such an attack, it will
                  not do so unless it is near starvation. Because of this, the
                  walrus has no natural predators, and sits atop the Arctic food
                  chain with the polar bear."
    Found as:     Male, female (see below)
    222. <P45/3> Walrus (female) - Odobenus rosmarus
                  (FR) Morse (femelle)
                  (DE) Walross (w)
                  (ES) Morsa (hembra)
                  (IT) Tricheco (femmina)
                  Details as above
    223. <P45/4> Southern elephant seal - Mirounga leonina
                  (FR) Eléphant de mer du sud
                  (DE) Südlicher See-Elefant
                  (ES) León marino del sur
                  (IT) Elefante marino del Sud
    Length:       6.5 m / 21 ft
    Description: "Easily recognised by its large, long nose, this seal is
                  particularly large; a male can weigh over 2 tonnes. Females are
                  smaller, growing up to 700kg. Their body is soft, which allows
                  them to bend over backwards. They are strong divers and can be
                  underwater for up to two hours and reach depths of up to 2,000m."
    Trivia:      "[Conflict]
                  Male elephant seals create a harem containing several females.
                  If another male appears to be approaching a female, the resident
                  male will swell its nose to make a loud, intimidating noise,
                  then violently attack the intruder with his body."
    Found as:     Adult only
    [11.46]  Page 46  - Shore Life
    224. <P46/1> Weddell seal - Leptonychotes weddellii
                  (FR) Phoque de Weddell
                  (DE) Weddellrobbe
                  (ES) Foca de Weddell
                  (IT) Foca di Weddell
    Length:       2.5 m / 8 ft 2 in
    Description: "This seal can be identified by the scattering of black or white
                  patches across its grey body. Whiskers sprout from either side of
                  its upturned nose. It uses its teeth to cut ice, creating holes
                  through which to dive and surface. Its teeth gradually wear down
                  but new teeth do not grow in their place, and seals with very
                  short teeth are unable to survive."
    Trivia:      "[Limited time]
                  The seal calf swims with its mother, learning how to dive. The
                  mother swims slowly and doesn't dive further than the calf can
                  manage. The calf is able to dive by itself when it is about seven
                  weeks old. Once it can do this it is able to live independently,
                  so this is when parent and child go their separate ways."
    Found as:     Adult, young
    225. <P46/2> Leopard seal - Hydrurga leptonyx
                  (FR) Léopard de mer
                  (DE) Seeleopard
                  (ES) Foca leopardo
                  (IT) Foca leopardo
    Length:       3.5m / 11 ft 6 in
    Description: "Known as the sea leopard on account of its black spots, its diet
                  is varied and includes penguins, fish, squid and young seals.
                  They are also said to relentlessly chase humans. Whether this is
                  because they think the person is prey or if they are just curious
                  is unclear, but it's best to be cautious."
    Found as:     Adult only
    226. <P46/3> Bearded seal - Erignathus barbatus
                  (FR) Phoque barbu
                  (DE) Bartrobbe
                  (ES) Foca barbuda
                  (IT) Foca barbata
    Length:       2.8m / 9 ft 2 in
    Description: "This seal has long whiskers growing around its mouth which are
                  connected to nerve endings on its face and used to forage for
                  prey on the seabed. Its forelegs face forward, unlike those of
                  other seals, allowing it a greater range of movement. It can also
                  turn them out horizontally. Most seals who are born on the ice
                  have pure white fur which acts as camouflage, but for some reason
                  this seal is brown with grey patches at birth."
    Found as:     Adult, young 
    227. <P46/4> Spotted seal - Phoca largha
                  (FR) Phoque tacheté
                  (DE) Largha-Robbe
                  (ES) Foca manchada
                  (IT) Foca maculata
    Length:       1.7 m / 5 ft 7 in
    Description: "This seal has brown or grey fur covered in white or black spots.
                  It has large eyes which give it excellent underwater vision, but
                  it is colour blind. Cubs are born with downy white fur to let
                  them blend in with the ice floes, but they shed this fur after
                  two to three weeks and their fur becomes like their parents'.
                  The seal's milk they are raised on is thicker and contains more
                  fat and nutrients than cow's milk."
    Trivia:      "[Submerged snoozing]
                  Seals can sleep underwater for a short time because they have a
                  lot of blood which lets them store large quantities of oxygen."
    Found as:     Adult, young
    [11.47]  Page 47  - Shore Life
    228. <P47/1> Ribbon seal - Phoca fasciata
                  (FR) Phoque à rubans
                  (DE) Bandrobbe
                  (ES) Foca fajada
    Length:       1.7 m / 5 ft 7 in
    Description: "These seals are black with distinctive white ribbon patterns
                  around their bodies, more pronounced on the males. The young,
                  who are born on drift ice, are a pure white colour for
    Found as:     Adult only
    229. <P47/2> Harp seal - Phoca groenlandica
                  (FR) Phoque du Groenland
                  (DE) Sattelrobbe
                  (ES) Foca de Groenlandia
                  (IT) Foca della Groenlandia
    Length:       1.9 m / 6 ft 3 in
    Description: "Its name comes from the harp-like pattern on its back. Pups are
                  completely white, like many other seals that live on drift ice."
    Found as:     Adult, young
    230. <P47/3> Mediterranean monk seal - Monachus monachus
                  (FR) Phoque moine de Méditerranée
                  (DE) Mittelmeer-Mönchsrobbe
                  (ES) Foca monje del Mediterráneo
                  (IT) Foca monaca mediterranea
    Length:       2.5 m / 8 ft 2 in
    Description: "This seal was once found all over the Mediterranean but its
                  numbers have gradually dwindled because of changes in the
                  environment, and now they can only be seen in a few places. A
                  similar species lives off the coast of Hawaii, but it is also at
                  risk of extinction."
    Found as:     Adult only
    231. <P47/4> West Indian manatee - Trichechus manatus
                  (FR) Lamantin des Caraïbes
                  (DE) Nagelmanati
                  (ES) Manatí
                  (IT) Lamantino
    Length:       4.5 m / 15 ft
    Description: "This fat, rotund animal with big round eyes can be distinguished
                  from the similar dugong by its fan-shaped tail. The manatee
                  lives in warm waters and spends most of the day grazing on
                  seaweed and other plants. It is friendly and will let itself be
                  stroked and petted, and its skin feels like an elephant's."
    Trivia:      "[Mermaid myopia]
                  Tales of mermaids are told all over the world, and a sighting was
                  even recorded in a ship's journal on Columbus' voyage. However,
                  there is a prominent theory that many of these sightings were
                  actually of sea cows, including manatees. It is plausible that
                  the creature seen by Columbus was also a manatee."
    Found as:     Adult only
    [11.48]  Page 48  - Shore Life
    232. <P48/1> Razorbill - Alca torda
                  (FR) Pingouin torda
                  (DE) Tordalk
                  (ES) Alca común
                  (IT) Gazza marina
    Height:       40 cm / 1 ft 4 in
    Description: "This black and white seabird has a wingspan of about 60cm, and at
                  first glance looks like a penguin. It lives on cliffs near the
                  sea and dives for its food."
    Trivia:      "[The original penguin]
                  Long before the creature we now call a penguin was discovered in
                  the southern.hemisphere, there was a species of flightless black
                  and white seabird in the northern hemisphere called the penguin.
                  However, these birds had a poor sense of self-preservation and
                  were hunted to extinction in the 19th century. When the bird we
                  now call the penguin was discovered in the southern latitudes,
                  they were given the same name because of their resemblance to
                  this extinct species."
    233. <P48/2> Short-tailed albatross - Phoebastria albatrus
                  (FR) Albatros à queue courte
                  (DE) Kurzschwanzalbatros
                  (ES) Albatros de cola corta
                  (IT) Albatro codacorta
    Length:       95 cm / 3 ft 1 in
    Description: "Easily identified by its large beak, which is curved down at the
                  tip, and its long, narrow wings. Blood can be seen through its
                  beak, making it look pale red. Chicks have a brown back with a
                  black tinge. This bird is monogamous, breeding with the same
                  partner every year."
    Trivia:      "[Ups and downs]
                  Its 2.5m wingspan makes it difficult for this bird to flap its
                  wings, and it cannot take off without an approach run. Once
                  airborne, it uses a technique called dynamic soaring to make use
                  of air currents and glide without moving its wings."
    234. <P48/3> Brown booby - Sula leucogaster
                  (FR) Fou brun
                  (DE) Brauntölpel
                  (ES) Alcatraz pardo
                  (IT) Sula fosca
    Length:       70 cm / 2 ft 4 in
    Description: "This sea bird has short wings and a pointed beak with jagged
                  edges. The area around the base of the beak is blue in males and
                  a pale yellow in females. It flies high above the waves hunting
                  for prey, performing a nosedive into the water when it finds
                  some. It has been seen at depths of up to 30m by divers."
    235. <P48/4> Japanese cormorant - Phalacrocorax capillatus
                  (FR) Cormoran de Temminck
                  (DE) Japankormoran
                  (ES) Cormorán japonés
                  (IT) Cormorano giapponese
    Length:       90 cm / 2 ft 11 in
    Description: "This long-necked bird is black with a green lustre. Its feathers
                  have a low fat content, which means they cannot repel water but
                  instead soak it up, making the bird heavier and better suited to
                  diving. It is normally too heavy to fly after diving, so it has
                  to let its feathers dry off first. It may even fall from the sky
                  if it rains, so its feathers could be called a double-edged
                  sword. It swallows its prey whole, which has led to it being used
                  for fishing in Asia."
    236. <P48/5> White pelican - Pelecanus onocrotalus
                  (FR) Pélican blanc
                  (DE) Rosapelikan
                  (ES) Pelícano blanco
                  (IT) Pellicano comune
    Length:       1.6 m / 5 ft 3 in
    Description: "This bird has a long slender neck and an enormous bill with a
                  pouch on the underside. Its plumage becomes pink during mating
                  season. Although it has a lifespan of around 30 years, pelicans
                  bred in captivity have lived for over 50 years."
    Trivia:      "[Fishing with an advantage]
                  Gathering in flocks of dozens, they drive fish towards the shore
                  by beating the water's surface in unison with their wings. When
                  the fish are cornered, they are immediately scooped up by the
                  pelican's large beak. Water is also taken into the beak together
                  with the fish. However, the water settles in the pouch, allowing
                  the pelican to swallow only the fish. Some pelican flocks can
                  even consist of tens of thousands of birds."
    237. <P48/6> Australian pelican - Pelecanus conspicillatus
                  (FR) Pélican à lunettes
                  (DE) Brillenpelikan\
                  (ES) Pelícano australiano
                  (IT) Pellicano australiano
    Length:       1.4 m / 4 ft 7 in
    Description: "This bird can be identified by its giant bill with a sack-like
                  underside. Its bill can reach 50cm in size, the largest of all
                  birds' beaks. During mating season, its bill becomes a vivid pink
                  and its bill pouch turns red. It performs a courtship dance,
                  vibrating its bill pouch."
    238. <P48/7> South polar skua - Catharacta maccormicki
                  (FR) Labbe de McCormick
                  (DE) Antarktische Raubmöwe
                  (ES) Págalo polar
                  (IT) Stercorario di McCormick
    Height:       55 cm / 1 ft 10 in
    Description: "This bird has a wingspan of around 1.3m and eats penguin eggs or
                  chicks. They wait for their chance, then snatch eggs or chicks
                  from their parents. Penguins actively threaten them and chase
                  them off if they come too close."
    239. <P48/8> White-bellied parrot - Pionites leucogaster
                  (FR) Caïque à ventre blanc
                  (DE) Rostkappenpapagei
                  (ES) Caique de cabeza amarilla
                  (IT) Caicco ventrebianco
    Height:       25 cm / 10 in
    Description: "This brightly coloured bird has a yellow head, green back and
                  white belly. It is a very popular pet, probably because it mimics
                  its owners' speech and enjoys playing with toys."
    [11.49]  Page 49  - Shore Life
    240. <P49/1> Polar bear - Ursus maritimus
                  (FR) Ours blanc
                  (DE) Eisbär
                  (ES) Oso polar
                  (IT) Orso polare
    Length:       3 m / 10 ft
    Description: "This bear is large and white, with a small head and ears and a
                  thick layer of blubber. Although its body hair looks white, it is
                  actually transparent; it appears white due to reflected light.
                  The polar bear lives inside the Arctic Circle, where much of the
                  ice is now receding due to global warming. Because of this, its
                  habitat has shrunk and there is a real threat of extinction as
                  the population continues to decrease."
    Trivia:      "[Formidable strength]
                  The polar bear has sharp claw and fangs and a biting force of
                  800kg, and sits atop the Arctic food chain. It also has a keen
                  sense of smell and can pick up the scent of a seal swimming
                  underwater. However, it has a low success rate when hunting
                  walrus and can even be fatally wounded fighting them."
    Found as:     Adult, young
    241. <P49/2> Sea otter - Enhydra lutris
                  (FR) Loutre de mer
                  (DE) Seeotter
                  (ES) Nutria marina
                  (IT) Lontra di mare
    Length:       1.5 m / 4 ft 11 in
    Description: "It has the densest fur of all mammals, with approximately one
                  billion individual hairs. There are two types of hairs; guard
                  hairs are long and thick while down hair is soft and thin. It can
                  insulate itself from the cold and create buoyancy by trapping air
                  between its hairs. It grooms its fur frequently to maintain its
    Trivia:      "[Hidden pouches]
                  The sea otter's armpit skin forms deep pocket-like pouches. It
                  catches shellfish underwater and places them in these pouches to
                  carry them safely to the surface. Once there it places them on
                  its stomach, breaks them open with stones and eats them. It eats
                  between 20 - 30% of its body weight in a single day, so although
                  it may not look like it, it has quite an appetite. It must eat
                  large quantities of food to keep itself warm in cold waters, so
                  it is not eating out of pure gluttony."
    Found as:     Adult, young
    242. <P49/3> Galapagos marine iguana - Amblyrhynchus cristatus
                  (FR) Iguane marin
                  (DE) Meerechse
                  (ES) Iguana marina
                  (IT) Iguana marina
    Length:       1.5 m / 4 ft 11 in
    Description: "This is the only lizard able to dive underwater. It has webbed
                  feet and feeds mostly on seaweed, diving repeatedly for several
                  minutes at a time and spending the rest of its time basking in
                  the sun. Sunbathing is very important, as it needs to warm itself
                  in the sun after diving; if its body temperature falls too low in
                  the water, it will be unable to move. It expels salt accumulated
                  in its body from its nose with salt-water sneezes."
    [11.50]  Page 50  - Freshwater Life
    243. <P50/1> Guppy - Poecilia reticulata
                  (FR) Guppy
                  (DE) Guppy
                  (ES) Guppy
                  (IT) Guppy
    Length:       5 cm / 2 in
    Description: "This fish comes in a wide variety of colours and attractive tail
                  shapes, and remains one of the most popular aquarium fish.
                  Selective breeding has produced many different shapes and
                  colours, but these fish are not a new species. Regardless of
                  their appearance, they are all guppies."
    Found as:     two colour variants: guppy and guppy (red)
    244. <P50/2> Banjo catfish - Bunocephalus coracoideus
                  (FR) Poisson-chat banjo
                  (DE) Zweifarbiger Bratpfannenwels
                  (ES) Siluro Catalina
                  (IT) Pesce banjo
    Length:       12 cm / 5 in
    Description: "This catfish is very flat and dull in colour, usually brown or
                  black. Its plain appearance makes it ideally suited to escape
                  predators by hiding on the river bed amongst rotting leaves or
    245. <P50/3> Zebra pleco - Hypancistrus zebra
                  (FR) Pléco zébré
                  (DE) Zebra-Harnischwels
                  (ES) Loricárido cebra
                  (IT) Pesce a ventosa zebrato
    Length:       7 cm / 3 in
    Description: "This beautiful catfish has black and white stripes all over its
                  body which give it its name."
    Trivia:      "[Cuckoo in the nest?]
                  There is a species of catfish in Lake Tanganyika in Africa,
                  called synodontis multipunctata, that tricks other fish into
                  incubating their young. It targets fish who incubate their eggs
                  in their mouth, laying its own eggs at the same time and mixing
                  them together. The catfish's young hatch earlier than the host's
                  eggs, and grow by eating the host fish's own young."
    246. <P50/4> Scarlet trimmed pleco - Pseudacanthicus sp
                  (FR) Pléco écarlate
                  (DE) Rotflossen-Kaktuswels
                  (ES) Pleco flama
    Length:       30 cm / 1 ft
    Description: "All of this attractive catfish's fins are bright red. It has a
                  row of spines leading towards its tail fin, so should not be
                  handled without gloves."
    247. <P50/5> Marbled piranha - Pristobrycon maculipinnis
                  (FR) Faux piranha tacheté
                  (ES) Piraña
    Length:       25 cm / 10 in
    Description: "Many piranhas have attractive colours or patterns like this one
                  with its bright red fins and scattering of black dots. They are
                  widely kept as aquarium fish, but in their native Amazon River
                  they are caught and eaten just like any other fish."
    248. <P50/6> Altum angelfish - Pterophyllum altum 
                  (DE) Hoher Segelflosser
                  (ES) Pez ángel altum
    Length:       13 cm / 5 in
    Description: "Angelfish normally have a thin body with long fins, but this one
                  has particularly long fins. While not as brightly coloured as
                  many other tropical fish, they are popular in aquariums because
                  of their shape and elegant, relaxed swimming style."
    249. <P50/7> Redtail catfish - Phractocephalus hemioliopterus
                  (FR) Poisson-chat à queue rouge
                  (DE) Rotflossen-Antennenwels
                  (ES) Bagre cajaro
                  (IT) Pirarara
    Length:       1 m / 3 ft 3 in
    Description: "This striking catfish sports a bright red tail. It is in high
                  demand as an aquarium fish, possibly because of its unique face.
                  However, as it grows to be very large, the owner needs to be
                  prepared for a large amount of responsibility. It is called
                  'pirarara' by local people."
    250. <P50/8> Royal panaque - Panaque sp
                  (DE) Schwarzlinien-Harnischwels
                  (ES) Carachama
    Length:       40 cm / 15.7in
                  That measurement in inches looks suspiciously precise!  
    Description: "With its green body covered in black lines, this fish looks a bit
                  like a watermelon. There are many varieties, some with spots or
                  flecks and others with geometrical patterns. They are popular
                  aquarium fish."
    [11.51]  Page 51  - Freshwater Life
    251. <P51/1> Disc flounder - Symphysodon aequifasciatus
                  (NA) Blue discus
                  (FR) Discus
                  (DE) Diskus
                  (ES) Disco azul
                  (IT) Pesce disco
    Length:       20 cm / 8 in
    Description: "This species has an attractive metallic blue lustre and is
                  popular as an aquarium fish. Fish in the discus genus come in a
                  variety of colours and each has its own name. Not all of these
                  colours have occurred naturally - many have been achieved by
                  selective breeding."
    Trivia:      "[Where's the milk coming from?]
                  These fish provide a viscous solution called 'discus milk' for
                  rearing their young. The fish do not have teats, but instead
                  secrete it through their skin. Even more surprising is that this
                  'milk' is secreted by the male as well as the female."
    252. <P51/2> Green terror - Aequidens rivulatus
                  (FR) Acara à bandes blanches
                  (DE) Goldsaumbuntbarsch
                  (ES) Terror verde
                  (IT) Terrore verde
    Length:       25 cm / 10 in
    Description: "This attractive, bright green fish probably gets its name from
                  its aggressive temperament."
    253. <P51/3> Pink-tailed chalceus - Chalceus macrolepidotus
                  (FR) Chalceus à queue rose
                  (DE) Großschuppensalmler
                  (ES) Carácido de cola rosa
    Length:       30 cm / 1 ft
    Description: "A pale pink fish whose tail is a particularly beautiful shade of
                  pink and the origin of its name."
                  Perhaps the most pedestrian description of any fish in the game. 
    254. <P51/4> Butterfly peacock bass - Cichla ocellaris
                  (FR) Tucunaré
                  (DE) Grüner Augenfleck-Kammbarsch
                  (ES) Pavón
    Length:       60 cm / 2 ft
    Description: "This fish has a distinctive eye- shaped mark on its tail. Males
                  develop a noticeable bump on their forehead as they reach
                  maturity. It is popular both as a game fish and in aquariums."
    255. <P51/5> Red-bellied piranha - Pygocentrus nattereri
                  (NA) Red Piranha
                  (FR) Piranha à ventre rouge
                  (DE) Roter Piranha
                  (ES) Piraña roja
                  (IT) Piranha rosso
    Length:       30 cm / 1 ft
    Description: "Named for its red underside, it also has razor-sharp teeth. There
                  are many types of piranha, but this one is most like what people
                  imagine them to be. It eats other fish and small animals that
                  fall into the water, and the sight of a large school feeding can
                  be overwhelming."
    Trivia:      "[Not as fierce you think...]
                  It has a reputation for being ferocious, but is actually quite
                  cowardly. A healthy human or large animal is unlikely to be
                  attacked. It is thought to swim in schools to protect itself from
                  predators such as crocodiles and river dolphins. Its large teeth
                  are still dangerous, and touching it carelessly can result in
                  serious injury."
    256. <P51/6> Tambaqui - Colossoma macropomum
                  (FR) Pacu noir
                  (DE) Schwarzer Pacu
                  (ES) Cachama
                  (IT) Tambaqui
    Length:       1 m / 3 ft 3 in
    Description: "This tall, dark fish lives on the fruit falling from trees, some
                  of which have hard shells. Its extremely strong jaws allow it to
                  break shells and extract the fruit."
    257. <P51/7> Electric Eel - Electrophorus electricus
                  (FR) Anguille électrique
                  (DE) Zitteraal
                  (ES) Anguila eléctrica
                  (IT) Anguilla elettrica
    Length:       1.8 m / 5 ft 11 in
    Description: "It is long and slender, like an eel, and is well known for its
                  ability to generate electricity. It can produce a maximum voltage
                  of around 800V, which is enough to electrocute humans and animals
                  as large as horses."
    Trivia:      "[What is it?]
                  Although it looks like an eel or a loach, it isn't related to
                  either and is currently classed in its own order. There are only
                  a few other fish in the same family, but they can all generate
                  electricity. Although it isn't a true eel, it is just as edible
                  as any eel."
    [11.52]  Page 52  - Freshwater Life
    258. <P52/1> Black arowana - Osteoglossum ferreirai
                  (FR) Ostéo noir
                  (DE) Schwarzer Arowana
                  (ES) Arahuana negra
                  (IT) Arowana amazzonica
    Length:       60 cm / 2 ft
    Description: "Adults of the species are an attractive blue-green colour but the
                  young are black, changing colour as they mature. The fully mature
                  fish is very similar in colour to the silver arowana. Its colour
                  also depends on the environment in which it lives."
    Found as:     Adult, young (see below)
    259. <P52/2> Black arowana (young) - Osteoglossum ferreirai
                  (FR) Ostéo noir (jeune)
                  (DE) Schwarzer Arowana (JT)
                  (ES) Arahuana negra (cría)
                  (IT) Arowana amazzonica (giovane)
                  Details as above
    260. <P52/3> Tiger-striped catfish - Brachyplatystoma tigrinum
                  (NA) Tigerstriped catfish
                  (DE) Tigerspatelwels
                  (ES) Pez tigre
                  (IT) Brachyplatystoma tigrinum
    Length:       1 m / 3 ft 3 in
    Description: "Named for its black and white striped markings, it also has a
                  long face and whiskers which give it a unique and fascinating
                  face. Its sight is poor, but it is able to find food and detect
                  predators using its long whiskers."
    261. <P52/4> Silver arowana - Osteoglossum bicirrhosum
                  (FR) Arowana argenté
                  (DE) Arowana
                  (ES) Arahuana
                  (IT) Osteoglosso
    Length:       95 cm / 3 ft
    Description: "This fish is covered with large, shiny silver scales. It doesn't
                  just hunt underwater, but will also target prey close to the
                  water and jump out to eat them in one bite."
    Trivia:      "[Beauty for a price]
                  Arowana live in the Amazon River, with some varieties found in
                  Australia and Indonesia. The Asian arowana, with its beautiful
                  red or gold colouring, is highly sought after as an aquarium
                  fish and traded for large sums of money. Particularly fine fish
                  are said to.cost as much as a luxury car. Species in the wild are
                  protected by the Washington Treaty, so fish you see being sold
                  are bred in captivity."
    262. <P52/5> Paradoxical frog (young) - Pseudis paradoxa
                  (FR) Grenouille paradoxale (tétard)
                  (DE) Harlekinfrosch (JT)
                  (ES) Rana patito (renacuajo)
                  (IT) Rana paradossale (giovane)
    Length:       20 cm / 8 in
                  This is the length of the tadpole, not of the frog
    Description: "You might think that these enormous tadpoles would grow up to be
                  giant frogs, but they actually become smaller as they mature and
                  are only 6cm long as adults. This is the paradox that gives them
                  their name."
    Trivia:      "[World's largest frog]
                  The world's largest tadpoles are those of the paradoxical frog,
                  but the largest frog in the world is the West African goliath
                  frog. The largest recorded frog is 36.8cm long and measured
                  87.6cm with its legs fully extended."
    Found as:     Young (tadpoles) only
    263. <P52/6> Polkadot stingray - Potamotrygon leopoldi
                  (NA) White-blotched river stingray
                  (FR) Raie d'eau douce
                  (DE) Leopolds Stachelrochen
                  (ES) Raya de agua dulce
    Length:       1 m / 3 ft 3 in
    Description: "This fish is black with white dots. It is one of a number of ray
                  that live in freshwater areas such as rivers, and it has a
                  poisonous stinger in its tail."
    Trivia:      "[Dangerous fish of the Amazon]
                  Some fish in the Amazon are even more dangerous than the piranha.
                  Freshwater ray strike with their poisonous stingers if trodden
                  on, causing extremely painful injuries. Even more feared than the
                  freshwater ray is a small catfish called the candiru, which
                  enters the bodies of larger fish through the gills and feeds off
                  their blood.and internal organs. They can also invade the human
                  body and cause death through blood loss or infection."
    [11.53]  Page 53  - Freshwater Life
    264. <P53/1> Alligator gar - Atractosteus spatula
                  (FR) Garpique alligator
                  (DE) Alligatorhecht
                  (ES) Gaspar baba
                  (IT) Pesce caimano
    Length:       3 m / 10 ft
    Description: "This fish has the long nose and mouth full of sharp teeth
                  associated with crocodiles, and is covered with hard scales
                  called ganoid scales. It swims slowly just below the surface and
                  can occasionally be seen coming up for air."
    Trivia:      "[Owners' responsibility]
                  Tropical fish are often exported to other countries to be enjoyed
                  as part of an aquarium. But if their owners cannot carry on 
                  keeping them, they can be released into local rivers or lakes. It
                  is difficult for these fish to survive in a different
                  environment, and even if they do they can seriously upset the
                  balance of the local ecosystem. There can be tragic consequences
                  if owners do not take responsibility for their pets."
    265. <P53/2> Bicuda - Boulengerella cuvieri
                  (FR) Piakoko
                  (DE) Bicuda
                  (ES) Picua
                  (IT) Bicuda
    Length:       1 m / 3 ft 3 in
    Description: "Living in fast-flowing waters, it has a long nose and orange
                  tail. They are fast, powerful swimmers and popular with sports
                  fishermen because of the way they leap from the water when
    266. <P53/3> Giant arapaima - Arapaima gigas
                  (NA) Arapaima
                  (FR) Arapaïma
                  (DE) Arapaima
                  (ES) Paiche
                  (IT) Arapaima
    Length:       4 m / 13 ft
    Description: "The world's largest, and possibly oldest, freshwater fish, it is
                  said to have remained unchanged for millions of years. It is a
                  carnivore which moves close to its prey then snaps them up with a
                  noisy gulp, surrounding water and all."
    Trivia:      "[Surface catch]
                  Unlike most other fish, this one can breathe air. It occasionally
                  comes to the surface to breathe and local people traditionally
                  hunt it by waiting for it to come to the surface, then spearing
                  it. It has always been an important source of food in the areas
                  where it is found."
    267. <P53/4> Dorado - Salminus maxillosus
                  (DE) Forellenraubsalmler
                  (ES) Dorado
                  (IT) Dorado
    Length:       1 m / 3 ft 3 in
    Description: "A beautiful fish with a golden gleam that might make you think
                  of the legendary city of gold, El Dorado, that explorers once
    [11.54]  Page 54  - Freshwater Life
    268. <P54/1> Piraiba catfish - Brachyplatystoma filamentosum
                  (FR) Bagre laulao
                  (DE) Riesenantennenwels
                  (ES) Bagre lau lau
                  (IT) Siluro dell'Amazzonia
    Length:       3 m / 10 ft
    Description: "Said to be the world's largest catfish, with some animals known
                  to exceed 300kg. Its  massive body and enormous mouth have given
                  it the nickname 'man-eating catfish'. It is delicious and often
                  served fried or used in soups."
    Trivia:      "[Is it really the largest?]
                  This catfish is said to be the world's largest, but the Wels 
                  catfish and Mekong giant catfish have also been given that title.
                  There are records of individual fish over 3m, but the
                  authenticity of the records is questionable. The current record
                  should probably go to a Mekong giant catfish found in 2005 which
                  measured 2.7m, but it's possible that an even bigger one will be
    269. <P54/2> Giant otter - Pteronura brasiliensis
                  (FR) Loutre géante
                  (DE) Riesenotter
                  (ES) Nutria gigante
                  (IT) Lontra gigante
    Length:       2 m / 6 ft 7 in
    Description: "They have a long, flat tail and large webbed feet tipped with
                  sharp claws, and live in nests on the banks of rivers and lakes.
                  Their young are occasionally threatened by crocodiles, but the
                  adults will band together to drive them off."
    270. <P54/3> Spectacled caiman - Caiman crocodilus
                  (FR) Caïman à lunettes
                  (DE) Krokodilkaiman
                  (ES) Caimán de anteojos
                  (IT) Caimano dagli occhiali
    Length:       2.5 m / 8 ft 2 in
    Description: "Its name comes from the ridges between its eyes that makes it
                  look as if it's wearing glasses. It lays several dozen eggs at a
                  time in a single nest, and the mother stays nearby to look after
                  the hatched young."
    Trivia:      "[Protective crocs]
                  Hatchlings give out a high-pitched cry as soon as they break out
                  of their eggs. When the mother hears them, she runs to the nest
                  and digs to help them get out. If the hatchlings cry out when
                  threatened by a predator, their mother will come to their defence
                  immediately and fight ferociously. Not only will other spectacled
                  caiman nearby react in the same way, but even different species
                  have been known to help protect the young."
    Found as:     Adult, young
    271. <P54/4> Amazonian manatee - Trichechus inunguis
                  (FR) Lamantin de l'Amazone
                  (DE) Amazonas-Manati
                  (ES) Manatí del Amazonas
                  (IT) Lamantino delle Amazzoni
    Length:       2.5m / 8 ft 2 in
    Description: "This herbivore lives in the fresh waters of the Amazon where it
                  feeds off water plants. The Amazon has wet and dry seasons, so
                  food is sometimes in short supply, but they are able to fast for
                  months at a time by living on their body fat reserves."
    [11.55]  Page 55  - Other Fauna
    272. <P55/1> Orange sea slug - Thecacera pacifica
                  (FR) Polyceride pacifique
                  (DE) Pazifische Nacktschnecke
                  (ES) Babosa naranja
                  (IT) Nudibranco thecacera
    Length:       5 cm / 2 in
    Description: "This bright orange sea slug has two protuberances near its tufted
                  gills. The base of its antennae, tail area and tips of its
                  protuberances are a luminous pale blue. It lives on rocky reefs,
                  and sways the protuberances beside its gills as it moves."
    Trivia:      "[Rendezvous]
                  The chances of tiny sea slugs meeting in the ocean are low, so
                  they cannot rely on chance encounters for breeding. They leave a
                  scent trail wherever they go so others can follow it to find a
                  mate for procreation."
    273. <P55/2> Orange and black sea slug - Thecacera sp
                  (FR) Limace de mer ambrée
                  (DE) Indische Nacktschnecke
                  (ES) Babosa naranja moteada
                  (IT) Nudibranco arancio
    Length:       4 cm / 1.5 in
    Description: "This sea slug is orange with black spots and two large
                  finger-like protuberances on its back. It is popular with divers
                  for its bright colour and the sight of it swaying its
                  protuberances while moving."
    Trivia:      "[Standing out to protect itself]
                  Many sea slugs are easily found by predators because of their
                  bright colours. Sea slugs have an unpleasant taste, so their loud
                  colours may act as a warning."
    274. <P55/3> Festival sea slug - Hypselodoris festiva
                  (FR) Limace de mer festive
                  (ES) Babosa multicolor
    Length:       4 cm / 1.5 in
    Description: "This sea slug is blue with orange antennae, a yellow line
                  running from between its antennae to in front of its gills and
                  broken yellow lines down both sides of its body. It lives by
                  rocky and coral reefs and eats sponges."
    Trivia:      "[Growing apart]
                  The sea slug is a member of the class gastropoda, and when born
                  it has a shell and organs called cilia, used for movement and
                  feeding, just like other snails. It casts off its shell as it
                  grows, so the adult sea slug no longer looks like a snail."
    275. <P55/4> Spotted white sea slug - Chromodoris orientalis
                  (FR) Limace de mer orientale
                  (DE) Gefleckte Prachtsternschnecke
                  (ES) Babosa moteada
                  (IT) Nudibranco bianco
    Length:       4 cm / 1.5 in
    Description: "This white sea slug with black spots floats on ocean currents
                  after hatching from its egg. Although it has a shell at birth,
                  it discards it as it develops."
    Trivia:      "[Both sexes]
                  The sea slug is a hermaphrodite, meaning that all sea slugs have
                  both male and female sexual organs. This means that eggs can be
                  spawned by any two sea slugs. The eggs of this species are laid
                  in a thin ribbon wrapped in a coil around rocks."
    276. <P55/5> Striped white sea slug - Chromodoris willani
                  (FR) Doris de Willan
                  (DE) Zebra-Prachtsternschnecke
                  (ES) Babosa cebra
                  (IT) Nudibranco striato
    Length:       5 cm / 2 in
    Description: "This beautiful pale blue sea slug has three black lines on its
                  back, which are often broken. The central line normally runs from
                  its antennae to its gills."
    277. <P55/6> Cinderella sea slug - Hypselodoris apolegma
                  (FR) Limace de mer Cendrillon
                  (DE) Prachtsternschnecke
                  (ES) Babosa rosada
                  (IT) Nudibranco violaceo
    Length:       10 cm / 4 in
    Description: "This gracefully drifting reddish-violet sea slug has a white
                  lace-like pattern at its edge. This sea slug has been filmed
                  breeding with what was thought to be another species, but after
                  seeing this some researchers think they may be two colour
                  variations of the same species."
    278. <P55/7> Strigate chromodoris - Chromodoris strigata
                  (FR) Limace de mer striée
                  (DE) Gestreifte Prachtsternschnecke
                  (ES) Babosa rayada
                  (IT) Nudibranco fasciato
    Length:       4 cm / 1.5 in
    Description: "A bright yellow rim runs round the edge of this pale blue sea
                  slug. It has a blotchy pattern on its back behind its antennae
                  and close to its gills, and three solid or broken lines run
                  along its back."
    Trivia:      "[Mutation]
                  There are many reports of abnormalities among sea slugs of the
                  same species, such as different numbers of antennae or their tips
                  being split. One report even describes a two- headed sea slug."
    279. <P55/8> Luminescent sea slug - Plocamopherus tilesii
                  (FR) Limace de mer léopard
                  (DE) Tiger-Meeresschnecke
                  (ES) Babosa luminiscente
                  (IT) Nudibranco iridescente
    Length:       15 cm / 6 in
    Description: "This translucent white sea slug is covered in random brown and
                  yellow splotches. It may not look like much, but it shines with a
                  beautiful pale blue light when stimulated. The significance of
                  the light is unknown. They are normally found near reefs and
                  sometimes bury themselves in sand."
    [11.56]  Page 56  - Other Fauna
    280. <P56/1> Parade-float sea slug - Kalinga ornata
                  (FR) Limace de mer ornée
                  (DE) Rotpunkt-Meeresschnecke
                  (ES) Babosa ornamentada
                  (IT) Nudibranco kalinga
    Length:       15 cm / 6 in
    Description: "Almost unidentifiable at first glance, this elliptical sea slug
                  is covered in white, yellow and red protuberances. It glows pale
                  blue when stimulated, but its biology is largely unknown. It
                  normally moves along the ocean floor but sometimes floats near
                  the surface."
    281. <P56/2> Venus flower basket - Euplectella aspergillum
                  (NA) Venus's-flower-basket
                  (FR) Eponge à crevettes
                  (DE) Gießkannenschwamm
                  (ES) Regadera de Filipinas
                  (IT) Cestello di Venere
    Length:       20 cm / 8 in
    Description: "This sponge looks like a basket woven from white thread. It is
                  actually formed from very fine silica, and beautiful enough to be
                  named after the goddess of beauty."
    Trivia:      "[Together forever]
                  Pairs of small shrimp often enter venus flower baskets through
                  the lattice as soon as they are born and grow up inside,
                  eventually becoming too large to get out. They then spend the
                  rest of their lives together inside the sponge."
    282. <P56/3> Branched sea slug - Kaloplocamus ramosus
                  (FR) Limace de mer ramifiée
                  (DE) Gelbe Meeresschnecke
                  (ES) Babosa de Ramous
                  (IT) Nudibranco ramificato
    Length:       7 cm / 3 in
    Description: "The numerous branch-like protuberances growing on this orange sea
                  slug can do many things. Cells on their tips emit light when
                  stimulated, spreading them out allows it to ride on ocean
                  currents and it can even use them to move."
    283. <P56/4> Berthella aurantiaca - Berthella aurantiaca
                  (FR) Berthelle orange
                  (DE) Orange Berthella
                  (ES) Berthella aurantiaca
                  (IT) Bertella arancione
    Length:       5 cm / 2 in
    Description: "These striking orange sea slugs have a relatively simple shape,
                  without the dorsal protrusions and fins of other sea slugs."
    284. <P56/5> Leafy seadragon - Phycodurus eques
                  (FR) Hippocampe feuille
                  (DE) Australischer Fetzenfisch
                  (ES) Dragón marino de hojas
                  (IT) Dragone foglia
    Length:       40 cm / 1 ft 4 in
    Description: "With branching protrusions all over its body, this creature 
                  looks like a piece of seaweed. It lives in seaweed-rich
                  environments like rocky reefs, and survives by mimicking
    Trivia:      "[Secret pocket]
                  There is a hollow section under the tail of the male leafy
                  seadragon known as a brood pouch. The female lays 150 - 300 eggs
                  in the male's pouch, and the male protects the eggs until they
                  hatch. Because the male and female look almost identical, it is
                  difficult to tell them apart by sight. But if one of them is
                  carrying eggs, it's definitely the male."
    285. <P56/6> Weedy seadragon - Phyllopteryx taeniolatus
                  (FR) Dragon de mer commun
                  (DE) Kleiner Fetzenfisch
                  (ES) Dragón marino común
                  (IT) Drago marino comune
    Length:       45 cm / 1 ft 6 in
    Description: "This seaweed-like creature has a number of protuberances growing
                  from its body. It has no egg-bearing brood pouch, which sets it
                  apart from other seahorses."
    Trivia:      "[Threat of extinction]
                  This species is listed as near threatened on the Red List
                  compiled by the International Union for Conservation of Nature
                  and Natural Resources. Being classed as a near-threatened species
                  does not mean an animal faces immediate extinction, but it does
                  indicate factors like dwindling numbers or habitat deterioration.
                  If the situation does not improve, the species will be given a
                  higher rank on the list and is likely to be on course for
    [11.57]  Page 57  - Other Fauna
    286. <P57/1> Pygmy seahorse - Hippocampus bargibanti
                  (FR) Hippocampe pygmée
                  (DE) Zwerg-Seepferdchen
                  (ES) Caballo de mar pigmeo
                  (IT) Ippocampo pigmeo
    Length:       2 cm / 1 in
    Description: "This small pink seahorse is covered in a large number of short
                  protuberances. It uses its twisted tail to wrap itself around
                  coral or seaweed and fix itself in position. Its body colour
                  changes depending on the surrounding environment, and orange, red
                  or yellow varieties with different patterns can be found."
    Trivia:      "[Where can it be?]
                  This cute, tiny fish is very popular amongst divers, but
                  extremely difficult to find. Even this small seahorse is adept
                  at mimicry, with its body looking like a coral stem and its soft
                  protuberances mimicking polyps."
    287. <P57/2> Crowned seahorse - Hippocampus coronatus
                  (FR) Hippocampe couronné
                  (DE) Hippocampus coronatus
                  (ES) Caballito de mar
                  (IT) Hippocampus coronatus
    Length:       10 cm / 4 in
    Description: "This seahorse has a long, slender body and a tubular mouth, and
                  is covered in hard bony plates that create ridges all over its
                  body. It may not look like a fish, but it is classed as one. It
                  is a weak swimmer, so it lives in areas with gentle currents and
                  anchors itself to seaweed with its tail."
    Trivia:      "[Male pregnancy]
                  The male has a sack known as a brood pouch on his abdomen. The
                  female lays her eggs into this pouch and the male cares for the
                  eggs until they start to hatch. Then he anchors his tail to
                  seaweed and shakes his body furiously, giving birth to about 70
                  offspring, one at a time."
    288. <P57/3> Spotted garden eel - Heteroconger hassi
                  (FR) Anguille de jardin mouchetée
                  (DE) Ohrfleck-Röhrenaal
                  (ES) Anguila punteada
                  (IT) Grongo maculato
    Length:       40 cm / 1 ft 4 in
    Description: "This eel has a long, slender white body covered in spots, which
                  are particularly large and noticeable around the gills. It lives
                  in groups and buries the lower half of its body in the sand near
                  coral reefs. It faces the tide and feeds on plankton swept out to
                  sea in the morning. It will sometimes move around to find a more
                  suitable area to live in."
    Trivia:      "[Metamorphosis]
                  Eels have a larval form known as leptocephalus, where their young
                  have a slender, ribbon-like body. These larvae do not resemble
                  adults, but as they develop, their body becomes 20 - 50% shorter
                  and cylindrical, and they gradually become miniature versions of
                  their adult form."
    289. <P57/4> Black garden eel - Heteroconger perissodon
                  (FR) Hétérocongre noir
                  (DE) Schwarzer Röhrenaal
                  (ES) Anguila negra
    Length:       50 cm / 1 ft 8 in
    Description: "This long, dark and slender eel has a faint pattern above its
                  gills. Sticking its body out from a nest dug in the sand, it
                  sways like grass blowing in the wind. It spends most of its life
                  in the sand, quickly burying itself if it feels threatened."
    290. <P57/5> Belt jellyfish - Aequorea coerulescens
                  (NA) Crystal Jelly
                  (FR) Méduse azur
                  (ES) Hidromedusa
                  (IT) Idromedusa
    Diameter:     20 cm / 8 in
    Description: "Its soft, pale, dome-shaped umbrella is fringed with over one
                  hundred tentacles and has a mouth in the centre that can be
                  spread wide to swallow other jellyfish whole. It drifts at dozens
                  of metres below the surface."
    Trivia:      "[Discovery]
                  This is the largest of all jellyfish in the order leptomedusae,
                  and it shines with a bluish-white light when stimulated. It was
                  recently discovered that this luminescent substance could be used
                  to measure calcium density, and the researchers who made this
                  discovery were awarded the Nobel prize for chemistry."
    291. <P57/6> Mauve stinger - Pelagia noctiluca
                  (FR) Méduse pélagique
                  (DE) Leuchtqualle
                  (ES) Medusa luminiscente
                  (IT) Medusa luminosa
    Diameter:     10 cm / 4 in
    Description: "Its dome-shaped umbrella has eight feelers extending from the
                  edge and four belt-shaped organs known as oral arms hanging down
                  from the centre. It has luminescent cells all over its body which
                  light up when stimulated."
    Trivia:      "[Skipping ahead]
                  Many jellyfish in the class scyphozoa go through a stage living
                  on the ocean floor as a polyp as they mature. This species
                  develops in an unusual fashion, skipping this growth stage and
                  carrying on to the floating stage."
    292. <P57/7> Turritopsis nutricula - Turritopsis nutricula
                  (ES) Medusa inmortal
    Diameter:     1 cm / 0.5 in
    Description: "This little jellyfish has a red organ in the centre of its
                  translucent body. On reaching maturity, it regenerates into its
                  younger form, so appears to be immortal. The species was only
                  recently discovered and there is much research yet to be done
                  on it."
    293. <P57/8> Moon jellyfish - Aurelia aurita
                  (FR) Méduse commune
                  (DE) Ohrenqualle
                  (ES) Medusa común
                  (IT) Medusa quadrifoglio
    Diameter:     20 cm / 8 in
    Description: "Over 95% of its transparent body is made up of water and its
                  umbrella is covered with a four leaf clover pattern. There are
                  huge outbreaks of them from time to time."
    Trivia:      "[Danger - do not touch!]
                  Most jellyfish have stings inside venomous stinging cells called
                  nematocysts. This species is quite poisonous but their sting is
                  not very painful, maybe because the sting is too short to
                  penetrate deeply into the skin, or because the area stung is
                  small. However, their venom can cause an acute and damaging
                  allergic reaction and so they should not be allowed to come into
                  contact with bare skin."
    [11.58]  Page 58  - Other Fauna
    294. <P58/1> Nomura's jellyfish - Stomolophus nomurai
                  (FR) Méduse de Nomura
                  (DE) Nomura-Qualle
                  (ES) Medusa nomura
                  (IT) Medusa di Nomura
    Diameter:     2 m / 6 ft 7 in
    Description: "It has an enormous umbrella, which is soft as it is mostly made
                  up of liquid. Hanging beneath the umbrella are countless organs
                  known as oral arms as well as thread-like appendages which can be
                  up to 5m long. It moves by riding ocean currents, which sometimes
                  leads to swarms of jellyfish. It is edible, and has even been
                  made into jellyfish ice cream."
    Trivia:      "[Jellyfish house]
                  Sometimes, a 3cm prawn known as a medusa shrimp will live inside
                  the Nomura's jellyfish. In exchange for protecting the prawn from
                  predators with its tentacles, the jellyfish has its body surface
                  cleaned of any organic matter sticking to it, which provides food
                  for the prawn. This is the basis of their symbiotic relationship.
                  It seems that more than one hundred prawns can live in a
                  symbiotic relationship with a single jellyfish."
    295. <P58/2> Red stingray - Dasyatis akajei
                  (FR) Pastenague du Pacifique
                  (DE) Japanischer Stechrochen
                  (ES) Raya látigo del Pacífico
                  (IT) Trigone del Pacifico
    Length:       1.2 m / 3 ft
    Description: "Its large diamond-shaped body ends in a long tail with a venomous
                  sting. This species' stingers are hard, serrated and have high
                  penetrative power. Not only are they difficult to remove, they
                  also leave the edges of the wound badly torn."
    Trivia:      "[Mother's milk]
                  This species is ovoviviparous, meaning that the eggs are
                  incubated inside the mother's.body. The embryo absorbs a highly
                  nutritious substance secreted in the womb called uterine milk.
                  Embryos in the womb have their pectoral fins folded along their
    296. <P58/3> Leopard whipray - Himantura undulata
                  (FR) Raie léopard
                  (DE) Leopard-Stechrochen
                  (ES) Raya leopardo
                  (IT) Pastinaca leopardo
    Length:       5 m / 16 ft
    Description: "This species can be recognised by the leopard pattern on its
                  back. Its tail is twice as long as its body, and has a poisonous
                  stinger at the tip. It is not very active and spends most of its
                  time buried in the sandy sea floor."
    Trivia:      "[Sharks and rays]
                  Sharks and rays are both cartilaginous fish. Rays, including this
                  species, may have divided off from sharks and adapted to living
                  on the sea floor. Rays have large brains relative to their body
                  weight, and are considered smarter than the average fish."
    297. <P58/4> Blotched fantail ray - Taeniura meyeni
                  (NA) Marbled ray
                  (FR) Raie brisant
                  (DE) Schwarzfleck-Stachelrochen
                  (ES) Raya látigo manchada
                  (IT) Trigone
    Length:       3 m / 10 ft
    Description: "This ray has a thicker body than most and a long tail with a
                  poisonous stinger. Some have a scattering of black blotches while
                  others are almost totally black."
    Trivia:      "[You won't just be wounded...]
                  Although not normally aggressive, when it feels threatened, it
                  will bend its tail up so that its stinger is aimed forwards. It
                  can inflict severe wounds and also inject poison, resulting in a
                  very dangerous injury."
    298. <P58/5> Cowtail stingray - Pastinachus sephen
                  (FR) Pastenague plumetée
                  (DE) Federschwanz-Stechrochen
                  (ES) Raya rabo de vaca
    Length:       3 m / 10 ft
    Description: "Its tail has a large frill-like piece of skin hanging from it and
                  a poisonous stinger at the end. It lives on the sea floor where
                  it buries itself in the sand with just its eyes sticking out."
    Trivia:      "[Breathing on the seabed]
                  This ray has large breathing holes near its eyes, on the upper
                  surface of its body. They take in water and pass it to the gills
                  to give the ray the oxygen it needs to breathe. These holes are
                  on the upper side so that sand is not  taken in with the water."
    299. <P58/6> Blue-spotted ribbontail ray - Taeniura lymna
                  (FR) Pastenague queue à ruban
                  (DE) Blauflecken-Stechrochen
                  (ES) Raya manchada de azul
                  (IT) Pastinaca a macchie blu
    Length:       70 cm / 2 ft 4 in
    Description: "This ray is greenish-yellow with large blue spots all over its
                  body. It also has a long tail with a stinger at the end and two
                  blue lines running from root to tip."
    Trivia:      "[Sand jet]
                  It blasts its prey with a jet of sand from the seabed, and then
                  breaks up the fish or shellfish with its hard teeth. This species
                  never buries itself on the sea floor."
    300. <P58/7> Japanese anglerfish - Lophius litulon
                  (NA) Monkfish
                  (FR) Baudroie du Japon
                  (DE) Anglerfisch
                  (ES) Rape japonés
                  (IT) Rana pescatrice orientale
    Length:       1.3 m / 4 ft 4 in
    Description: "This fish is flat and extremely thin with a protuberance on its
                  large head. Its mouth is full of large, sharp teeth which can
                  fold inwards. The protuberance on its head is actually formed by
                  spines from its dorsal fin."
    Trivia:      "[Angler of the sea]
                  The anglerfish can normally be found buried in the sand with only
                  its protuberance showing. There is a lure-like part at the tip
                  which is used to entice prey towards it. When prey draws near,
                  the anglerfish opens its mouth and instantly swallows its prey
                  along with a large quantity of water. It can even eat creatures
                  over half its size."
    [11.59]  Page 59  - Other Fauna
    301. <P59/1>  Broadclub cuttlefish - Sepia latimanus
                  (FR) Seiche à larges mains
                  (DE) Breitarm-Sepia
                  (ES) Sepia mazuda
                  (IT) Seppia gigante
    Length:       60 cm / 2 ft
    Description: "There is a fin running around its body and eight arms attached to
                  its head. It also has two long tentacles with five rows of around
                  eighty suction pads towards the ends, with larger ones in the
                  centre. It has a short life span of only one or two years."
    Trivia:      "[Underwater chivalry]
                  Cuttlefish lay their eggs in coral reefs every year. While the
                  female lays the eggs, the male swims nearby to protect her. If a
                  threat approaches, he changes colour to intimidate it. However,
                  he only changes colour on the side facing the threat; the side
                  facing the female remains unchanged. This is so as not to unduly
                  alarm her while she is focused on laying eggs."
    Found as:     Adult, young (see below), eggs
    302. <P59/2> Broadclub cuttlefish (young) - Sepia latimanus
                  (FR) Seiche à larges mains (jeune)
                  (DE) Breitarm-Sepia (JT)
                  (ES) Sepia mazuda (cría)
                  (IT) Seppia gigante (giovane)
                  Details as above
    303. <P59/3> Bigfin reef squid - Sepioteuthis lessoniana
                  (FR) Calmar grandes nageoires
                  (DE) Lesson-Kalmar
                  (ES) Calamar manopla
                  (IT) Calamaro di reef
    Length:       45 cm / 1 ft 6 in
    Description: "A large fin runs all the way around this white, almost
                  transparent, fish. It lays its eggs on coral or seaweed from
                  spring to summer. During this time, the male never leaves the
                  female's side, protecting both the eggs and the female as she
                  lays them."
    Trivia:      "[Liquid crystal]
                  Squid ink is a liquid crystal, but there are many different kinds
                  of liquid crystal and it is not the same as that used in displays
                  (LCDs). Liquid crystals similar to squid ink can be used in
                  thermometers, or to bring out a glossy finish on surfaces."
    Found as:     Adult, young (see below), eggs
    304. <P59/4> Bigfin reef squid (young) - Sepioteuthis lessoniana
                  (FR) Calmar à grandes nageoires (jeune)
                  (DE) Lesson-Kalmar (JT)
                  (ES) Calamar manopla (cría)
                  (IT) Calamaro di reef (giovane)
                  Details as above
    305. <P59/5> Common octopus - Octopus vulgaris
                  (FR) Pieuvre commune
                  (DE) Gemeiner Krake
                  (ES) Pulpo
                  (IT) Polpo
    Length:       60 cm / 2ft
    Description: "It has eight tentacles equipped with suction pads growing from
                  its round body, with a membrane between each one. The tentacles
                  can also divide and one octopus was found to have 96 tentacles.
                  It can change colour to blend in with its surroundings and uses
                  this ability to protect itself. One of its favourite foods is
    Trivia:      "[Using ink]
                  The ink an octopus squirts when threatened diffuses in the water
                  and acts as a smokescreen to blind its attacker. Squid produce a
                  huge quantity of ink which does not diffuse but creates a cloud
                  that looks like the squid, diverting the attacker's attention."
    306. <P59/6> Crown-of-thorns starfish - Acanthaster planci
                  (FR) Acanthaster pourpre
                  (DE) Dornenkronenseestern
                  (ES) Corona de espinas
                  (IT) Stella corona di spine
    Length:       60 cm / 2 ft
    Description: "Its body and countless arms are covered in thick orange spines.
                  The spines contain a poison which can be fatal to humans so it
                  must be approached with caution. It feeds on coral, which turns
                  white and dies when eaten. Conch shellfish are unaffected by the
                  poison and often eat these starfish."
    Trivia:      "[Who's the bad guy?]
                  When large numbers of these starfish appear, they can devour a
                  huge quantity of coral; this has led to them being disposed of as
                  a pest. However, small numbers of them can promote the growth of
                  new coral by eating fully developed coral, so they are not
                  completely destructive. Pollution is thought to cause an increase
                  in their numbers, so even if numbers were reduced the underlying
                  problem would not be solved."
    307. <P59/7> Sea star - Certonardoa semiregularis
                  (FR) Etoile de mer
                  (ES) Estrella de mar
    Length:       10 cm / 4 in
    Description: "The surface of this red starfish is rough, and it sometimes has
                  swollen bumps on its arms; these are actually small parasitic
                  snails inside the arm which live off its bodily fluids. Turning
                  it upside down reveals small prawns living in the grooves of its
    308. <P59/8> Blue sea star - Linckia laevigata
                  (FR) Etoile de mer bleue
                  (DE) Blauer Seestern
                  (ES) Estrella de mar azul
                  (IT) Stella di mare blu
    Length:       20 cm / 8 in
    Description: "This blue starfish has five solid round arms. It mainly feeds on
                  microbes and organic matter on the ocean floor, and its mouth is
                  located in the middle of its body. There are also green and grey
                  varieties. If turned over it can right itself by moving its arms
    Trivia:      "[Re-arming]
                  Starfish are very good at regenerating. An arm will regrow over
                  time if it has been cut off. What's more, the dismembered arm
                  also regenerates, gradually regrowing and eventually developing
                  into an entirely new starfish."
    [11.60]  Page 60  - Other Fauna
    309. <P60/1> Randall's pistol shrimp - Alpheus randalli
                  (FR) Crevette-pistolet de Randall
                  (DE) Randalls Knallkrebs
                  (ES) Camarón pistola
                  (IT) Gambero dei ghiozzi di Randall
    Length:       6 cm / 2.5 in
    Description: "This shrimp has a red and white candy-stripe pattern, ten legs
                  and two sets of antennae. The first set of legs have claws, one
                  small claw and one large claw that is used to make an
                  intimidating noise. It digs a nest in the sand on the sea bed and
                  lives in a symbiotic relationship with a goby."
    Trivia:      "[Amazing cooperation]
                  This pistol shrimp's eyesight is particularly poor, so it
                  struggles to detect threats. It escapes predators by allowing a
                  goby to live in its burrow in exchange for warning it of danger.
                  The shrimp keeps its long antennae in contact with the goby, who
                  will move its body or fins when it sees something dangerous,
                  alerting the shrimp. The burrow they share is large with many
                  complex branching tunnels."
    310. <P60/2> Goby shrimp - Alpheus rapax
                  (FR) Crevette-gobie
                  (DE) Baggerkrebs
                  (ES) Gamba gobio
    Length:       7 cm / 3 in
    Description: "This mottled shrimp has one large and one small claw. The large
                  claw can produce a noise so loud it can even stun nearby prey.
                  Each goby shrimp digs a nest in the sand and forms a symbiotic
                  relationship with a goby fish."
    Trivia:      "[Sounds delicious]
                  These shrimp are loud enough to be detected by submarine sonar.
                  The noise made by their large claw sounds like deep-frying food,
                  so has been called the 'frying noise'."
    311. <P60/3> Ornate spiny lobster - Panulirus ornatus
                  (FR) Langouste ornée
                  (DE) Schmuck-Languste
                  (ES) Langosta ornamentada
    Length:       60 cm / 2 ft
    Description: "This hard-shelled animal is the largest in its family. It has
                  ten legs and two pairs of antennae; one long and thin stretching
                  out in front to sense flavour and odour and the other heavier and
                  stretched out over its shell that it uses to explore its
                  immediate environs. Its shell is blue-green with a pale yellow
                  pattern on the back."
    Trivia:      "[Growing by shedding]
                  Its eggs hatch and produce phyllosoma larvae which float freely 
                  in the water for a long time. They moult repeatedly as they grow
                  and eventually become puerulus, where they look like adults
                  except for being transparent, and settle on the sea floor. After
                  moulting one more time they take on their adult colouring, and
                  they continue to moult as they grow larger."
    312. <P60/4> Japanese horseshoe crab - Tachypleus tridentatus
                  (FR) Limule
                  (DE) Japanischer Pfeilschwanzkrebs
                  (ES) Cangrejo de herradura
                  (IT) Limulo giapponese
    Length:       80 cm / 2 ft 3 in
    Description: "Often described as a living fossil, the shape of this
                  hard-shelled crab has not changed for about two hundred million
                  years. It has two types of eye; one which can detect light,
                  called ocelli, and another known as compound eyes which are used
                  to distinguish different objects. Although they live on the sea
                  bed, they occasionally swim on their backs just below the
    Trivia:      "[Power of blood]
                  The blood of the Japanese horseshoe crab is utilised in medicinal
                  and pharmacological research. It has a variety of uses, which
                  include making it possible to quickly test for endotoxins such as
                  those produced by toxigenic strains of E. coli bacteria."
    313. <P60/5> Red-streaked box crab - Calappa lophos
                  (DE) Schamkrabbe
                  (ES) Cangrejo de caja común
    Width:        12 cm / 5 in
    Description: "This unique crab holds its large pincers in front of its face as
                  if hiding. It likes to eat shellfish, which it braces against a
                  bump at the base of its right pincer and gradually crushes to get
                  at the meat inside. When it is finished eating, nothing but the
                  core of the shellfish is left."
    314. <P60/6> Spotted box crab - Calappa philargius
                  (DE) Gepunktete Schamkrabbe
    Shell width:  10 cm / 4 in
    Description: "This crab has round spots on its pincers and markings around its
                  eyes that make it look like it is wearing glasses."
    315. <P60/7> Japanese spider crab - Macrocheira kaempferi
                  (FR) Crabe araignée du Japon
                  (DE) Japanische Riesenkrabbe
                  (ES) Cangrejo araña gigante
                  (IT) Granchio gigante del Giappone
    Length:       4 m / 13 ft 1 in
    Description: "This is the largest crustacean in the world, with a carapace
                  measuring approximately 40cm. It has ten long spindly legs with
                  claws at the end of one pair, which grow especially large and
                  long for males. Old records state that the biggest. ver specimen
                  was 5.8m."
    [11.61]  Page 61  - Other Fauna
    316. <P61/1> Ribbon eel - Rhinomuraena quaesita
                  (NA) Ribbon moray
                  (FR) Murène ruban
                  (DE) Geistermuräne
                  (ES) Morena cinta
                  (IT) Murena a nastro
    Length:       1.3 m / 4 ft 4 in
    Description: "This striking member of the moray eel family is blue with a
                  yellow mouth and dorsal fin. It also has a characteristic ribbon
                  protruding from the front of its nose. Females are yellow and
                  young fish are black."
    317. <P61/2> Kidako moray - Gymnothorax kidako
                  (FR) Murène Kidako
                  (DE) Kidako-Muräne
                  (ES) Morena kidako
                  (IT) Murena Kidako
    Length:       80 cm / 2 ft 3 in
    Description: "This carnivorous fish has a long, slender body and a large mouth
                  full of sharp teeth. It lives in crevices in coral and other
                  reefs, and it will attack if it is approached carelessly.
                  However, when it expels parasites or leftover food it opens its
                  mouth and allows tiny prawns to clean it. It waits patiently with
                  its mouth open for the cleaning to finish. It's rather sweet."
    Trivias:     "[Childhood]
                  The young, known as leptocephalus, are pale, ribbon-shaped and
                  very buoyant, and travel long distances on the ocean currents.
                  Other species of eel have a similar period of development, but
                  there are still many unknowns about this stage."
    318. <P61/3> Bering wolffish - Anarhichas orientalis
                  (FR) Loup de Béring
                  (DE) Anarhichas orientalis
                  (ES) Pez lobo de Bering
                  (IT) Bavosa lupa del Bering
    Length:       1.3 m / 4 ft 4 in
    Description: "It hides in reef crevices with just its head poking out, and has
                  a long mouth full of large, sharp teeth that it uses to catch
                  crustaceans and shellfish. It can crush them, shell and all, with
                  its powerful back molars."
    Trivia:      "[Parental affection]
                  When the sticky batches of eggs are laid in the winter, the
                  parent fish wraps itself around the eggs and protects them from
                  predators until they hatch. This takes up to four months, and
                  shows a surprisingly affectionate side to this scary-looking
    319. <P61/4> Leatherback turtle - Dermochelys coriacea
                  (FR) Tortue-luth
                  (DE) Lederschildkröte
                  (ES) Tortuga laúd
                  (IT) Tartaruga liuto
    Length:       3 m / 10 ft
    Description: "The largest turtle in the world, it has large fins and a dark
                  leathery back with several ridges instead of a hard shell. The
                  total population is small, and they are considered an endangered
    Trivia:      "[Turtle without a shell]
                  This species has a flexible skin on its back instead of the hard
                  shell other turtles have. It is thought to have had a hard shell
                  millions of years ago that disappeared in the course of its
    320. <P61/5> Green sea turtle - Chelonia mydas
                  (FR) Tortue verte
                  (DE) Suppenschildkröte
                  (ES) Tortuga verde
                  (IT) Tartaruga verde
    Length:       2 m / 6 ft 7 in
    Description: "It has a carapace made up of a central line of five hardened
                  scales with four more on either side, and its legs are shaped
                  like fins with the forward pair longer than the rear. Unlike
                  land-based turtles, it is unable to draw its head and limbs into
                  its shell."
    Trivia:      "[Turtles and humans]
                  This turtle is very well known in certain parts of the world and
                  is sometimes caught for food, but its numbers are dwindling and
                  it is at risk of extinction. There are many causes for this, most
                  of them are related to human activity. Turtles are caught for
                  food or taxidermy or killed as bycatch, there are fewer spawning
                  sites due to levees, eggs are illegally harvested and turtles
                  killed after eating polluted food. They are also affected by a
                  disease known as fibropapillomatosis."
    Found as:     Adult, young, eggs (the last two maybe just in cutscenes?)
    [11.62]  Page 62  - Other Fauna
    321. <P62/1> Sea angel - Clione limacina
                  (FR) Papillon de mer
                  (DE) Flügelschnecke
                  (ES) Ángel de mar
                  (IT) Angelo di mare
    Length:       3 cm / 1 in
    Description: "With its translucent body and wing-like legs, it's easy to see
                  how this creature got its name. It is related to shellfish and
                  has a shell when born, but loses it as it matures."
    Trivia:      "[Not so angelic?]
                  Approaching its prey, it opens its mouth, found between two
                  horn-like projections on its head, and sends six tentacles out to
                  catch its food. These tentacles are what make its transparent
                  head look red. It lives on small floating shellfish called sea
    322. <P62/2> Sea butterfly - Limacina helicina
                  (DE) Meeresschmetterling
    Length:       1.5 cm / 1 in
    Description: "This member of the mollusc family has parapodia, special
                  wing-like legs, that it uses to swim while floating. It is
                  related to the sea angel, but preyed upon by it."
    323. <P62/3> Hydromyles globulosa - Hydromyles globulosa 
    Length:       1 cm / 0.5 in
    Description: "This mollusc has a translucent body with long tentacles and
                  wing-like appendages, but no shell. It belongs to a group of
                  shell-less or naked snails commonly called pteropods."
    324. <P62/4> Antarctic krill - Euphausia superba
                  (FR) Krill antarctique
                  (DE) Antarktischer Krill
                  (ES) Kril antártico
                  (IT) Krill antartico
    Length:       5 cm / 2 in
    Description: "These shrimp-like creatures are found in enormous swarms. When
                  threatened, they quickly spring backwards. They have
                  bioluminescent organs and can emit light, but why they do this is
                  not yet known"
    325. <P62/5> Mertensia ovum - Mertensia ovum
                  (FR) Groseille de mer plate
                  (DE) Rippenqualle
    Length:       10 cm / 4 in
    Description: "This translucent round creature gleams with all the colours of
                  the rainbow. The colour comes from light reflecting off the fine
                  hairs in the comb ridges on its body."
    326. <P62/6> Atlantic spiny lumpsucker - Eumicrotremus spinosus
                  (FR) Petite poule de mer atlantique
                  (DE) Seehase
                  (ES) Ciclóptero espinoso atlántico
                  (IT) Eumicrotremus spinosus
    Length:       13 cm / 5 in
    Description: "This small, round fish has large eyes, several small spines on
                  its body and a sucker on its belly. It uses the sucker to secure
                  itself to rocks and prevent itself being swept away by ocean
    [11.63]  Page 63  - Other Fauna
    327. <P63/1> Ice Cupid - ? ? ? ? ? ?
                  (FR) Cupidon de glace
                  (DE) Arktis-Amor
                  (ES) Cupido de hielo
                  (IT) Cupido dei ghiacci
    Description: "For several years now, there has been a rumour amongst certain
                  Canadian preservation groups whose activities focus on the Arctic
                  Sea. They tell of a creature called the Ice Cupid, and say that
                  anyone who sees it will find true love... This giant sea angel
                  might just be what inspired this story."
    Trivia:      "[Origins of the Ice Cupid story]
                  According to stories handed down among a number of Arctic tribes,
                  one child of the gods was a hunter who ruled over love and
                  marriage. Perhaps the story of the Ice Cupid originates from
                  tales such as these."
    328. <P63/2> Ailouros Pearl - ? ? ? ? ? ?
                  (FR) Perle d'Ailouros
                  (DE) Ailourosperle
                  (ES) Perla de Ailouros
                  (IT) Perla di Ailouros
    Description: "Called the pearl of Ailouros Island, this is a rare red-streaked
                  box crab with a pure white shell which can be found only rarely
                  in the Cyclades Islands. Its shell is valuable as it is crafted
                  and sold as traditional art. Popular belief says that whoever
                  finds one of these rare crabs will have the luck of 100
                  four-leafed clovers."
    Trivia:      "[The Ailouros cat]
                  To the west of Ciceros Strait, the cat-filled island of
                  Ailouros (which means 'cat' in Greek) is famous for craft items
                  made from the shells of red-streaked box crabs, as are the
                  Cyclades Islands in general. In the 12th century the shells of
                  Ailouros Pearl were used to make an ornamental white cat known as
                  the Ailouros Cat, which is highly valued among the arts of the
                  Aegean Sea. The figure is so well-loved that replicas are sold
                  today in souvenir shops in the region."
    [11.64]  Page 64  - Other Fauna
    329. <P64/1> Grave Keeper - ? ? ? ? ? ?
                  (FR) Gardien du cimetière
                  (DE) Der Grabwächter
                  (ES) Sepulturero
                  (IT) Guardiano del cimitero
    Description: "This oversized giant isopod is the size of a young child. Living
                  in the depths of the crevasse off the carcasses of whales or fish
                  and generally cleaning up the seabed, his size makes him king of
                  the scavengers. As he tends to the dead in the dark depths he is
                  aptly named."
    Trivia:      "[Giant centipedes]
                  Giant isopods grow to 50cm and are the largest members of the
                  order isopoda, which includes woodlice. The arthropleura, a kind
                  of giant centipede and also a member of this family, roamed the
                  land about 300 million years ago and grew over two metres long.
                  Their growth may have been the result of higher oxygen
                  concentrations at that time. This is particularly interesting as
                  the giant isopod lives at the bottom of the sea where there is
                  little oxygen."
    330. <P64/2> Gungnir - ? ? ? ? ? ?
                  (FR) Gungnir
                  (DE) Gungnir
                  (ES) Gungnir
                  (IT) Gungnir
    Description: "This monstrous sailfish is the talk of fishermen throughout the
                  South Pacific. He is sly and ferocious and swims several times
                  faster than any normal sailfish. A number of fishing boats have
                  been damaged when he rammed them. Some fishermen tried to catch
                  to catch this monster, but they fell victim to his attacks
                  instead. He is called Gungnir after a magic spear in Norse
    Trivia:      "[Mutation? Genetic defect?]
                  There are cases of unusual physical characteristics that can
                  only be described as mutations, but Gungnir's fundamental body
                  structure is the same as that of any normal sailfin. His muscles
                  are over-developed, probably due to a genetic defect sometimes
                  found in dogs or cows where a gene suppressing muscle growth is
                  deficient, but this has not been confirmed."
    [11.65]  Page 65  - Other Fauna
    331. <P65/1> Phantom - ? ? ? ? ? ?
                  (FR) Spectre
                  (DE) Das Phantom
                  (ES) Sombra
                  (IT) Fantasma
    Description: "This is the jet black manta seen in the silent ruins of Valka
                  Castle. This foreboding creature roams the deserted ruins like a
                  ghost. There is a superstition amongst the inhabitants of Ciceros
                  Straits that the spirits of those who die at sea return as rays
                  Could this be the shade of the former owner of the castle, the
                  prince himself?"
    Trivia:      "[Phantoms of Valka Castle]
                  Valka Castle, built by an eastern European prince in the 16th
                  century, was said to be haunted even before it sank into the sea.
                  The ghosts were probably the vengeful spirits of peasants or
                  enemy soldiers executed by the cruel prince. This explains why
                  Prince Valka became obsessed with the occult and mysticism in his
                  later years."
    332. <P65/2> Apollo - ? ? ? ? ? ?
                  (FR) Apollon
                  (DE) Apoll
                  (ES) Apolo
                  (IT) Apollo
    Description: "Paoul legend says that the sun rests in the sea during the night
                  and rises up from the water in the morning. The sun is said to
                  turn into a large round fish while under the sea - none other
                  than the giant golden ocean sunfish. It can sometimes be seen
                  leap into the sky."
    Trivia:      "[Sunfish? Moonfish?]
                  In English, this fish is called a sunfish, but in Spanish,
                  Italian and German it is known as the moonfish. Whichever name
                  is used, they all try to capture something about its unique
    [11.66]  Page 66  - Other Fauna
    333. <P66/1> Divine Gift - ? ? ? ? ? ?
                  (NA) Lady Dorthea
                  (FR) Don du ciel
                  (DE) Die Göttergabe
                  (ES) Don divino
                  (IT) Dono degli dei
    Description: "This perfect sturgeon from Ciceros Strait has the ideal
                  combination of characteristics for its species. There is a story
                  of a Roman emperor who ate caviar from such a Ciceros sturgeon
                  and declared that it was ''food sent from the gods''. This story
                  gave these fabulous sturgeon, found only once every hundred
                  years, their name."
    Trivia:      "[The cost of caviar]
                  Caviar, the eggs of the sturgeon, is considered a delicacy the
                  world over. It takes 10 - 20 years for a sturgeon to mature into
                  an egg-laying fish, and this combined with overfishing has caused
                  prices to soar. Regular caviar is expensive, but caviar from
                  Divine Gift can easily be ten times more expensive."
    334. <P66/2> Golden Catfish - ? ? ? ? ? ?
                  (FR) Poisson-chat doré
                  (DE) Der Goldene Wels
                  (ES) Pez gato dorado
                  (IT) Pesce gatto dorato
    Description: "This golden hue is not a mutation or camouflage, it is real gold!
                  To be precise, there is a fine layer of gold dust covering this
                  fish's entire body. Gold dust is known to lie on the riverbed of
                  the Amazon and other rivers in the region. This fine powder is
                  eaten by micro-organisms and insects and builds up inside the
                  bodies of other animals as it goes up through the food chain.
                  The golden catfish simply exudes the gold through its skin."
    Trivia:      "[The Cortica Gold Rush]
                  Panning for gold dust in the Cortica River region became so
                  popular at one time that it was called the Cortica Gold Rush.
                  There was a rumour in the mining community at the time that a
                  golden fish lived in the river. The rumour grew until every miner
                  turned his hand to fishing in the hope of catching this golden
                  fish. No one was lucky enough to catch it, and the story was
                  eventually forgotten. This might just be the fish they were all
                  searching for."
    [11.67]  Page 67  - Other Fauna
    335. <P67/1> Paoul crocodile - ? ? ? ? ? ?
                  (NA) Pelago crocodile
                  (FR) Crocodile de Baoru
                  (DE) Paoul-Krokodil
                  (ES) Cocodrilo de Paoul
                  (IT) Coccodrillo di Baoru
    Length:       5 m / 16 ft
    Description: "This rare native of Paoul is known to the natives as 'gatama
                  gatawa'. It was thought to have been hunted to extinction for its
                  leather at the beginning of the 20th century, but you have
                  rediscovered it! It is a very strong swimmer, even compared to
                  other saltwater crocodiles, and may be capable of swimming up to
                  ten thousand kilometres. It is ferocious, even preying on water
                  buffalo. Like other crocodiles, it will eat humans if it is
                  hungry enough."
    Trivia:      "[The diamond necklace]
                  In the Paoul language, 'gatama gatawa' means 'mother's diamond
                  necklace'. Long, long ago there was an island where the most
                  beautiful woman was envied by her daughter, who was the second
                  most beautiful. The daughter believed her mother's diamond
                  necklace made her more beautiful, so she stole it. The gods
                  turned the daughter into an ugly crocodile as punishment. This
                  crocodile is said to have a belly full of diamonds it has
                  swallowed, and so this ugly creature has a beautiful name."
    336. <P67/2> King Gigide - ? ? ? ? ? ?
                  (FR) Roi Gigide
                  (DE) König Gigide
                  (ES) Rey Gigide
                  (IT) Re Gigide
    Description: "This is the crocodile that appears before you as if called by the
                  caiman relic. The people of the Cortica region say that a wind
                  god was exiled from heaven and settled in the Cortica River, and
                  he sometimes appears before humans in the form of a gleaming
                  reptile. If the person is good, he grants them health and long
                  life but if the person is bad, he immediately devours them.
                  This god is known as King Gigide and he has faithful followers
                  even today."
    Trivia:      "[The evil king]
                  In the language of the ancient culture of the Cortica area,
                  'Gigide' is related to the words for left hand, the East,
                  Atlantic Ocean, morning, and birth. Local worship of the rising
                  sun may also come from these legends. Similar stories exist all
                  over the Amazon River basin, including one from the Gorgonia
                  region about Gagadi, associated with the right hand, the West
                  and death. These stories of an evil deity directly contrast with
                  those of Gigide, and are currently being researched."
    [11.68]  Page 68  - Other Fauna
    337. <P68/1> Mama Cortica - ? ? ? ? ? ?
                  (FR) Mama Cortica
                  (DE) Mama Cortica
                  (ES) Mama Cortica
                  (IT) Mama Cortica
    Description: "This Amazon River manatee with unique markings is highly
                  intelligent and good natured. She is rarely seen but there are
                  many stories of her saving drowning children, stopping boats from
                  capsizing or helping people in some way. This creature has earned
                  the love and respect of the local people, who named her Mama
    Trivia:      "[Legendary goddess] The legend of a goddess named Mama Kola has
                  been passed on in the Cortica River region since time immemorial.
                  Kola is an ancient form of Cortica. A statue with the head of a
                  woman and the body of a dolphin, known as the Cortica Mermaid,
                  is a well-known symbol of the region's capital. She is said to be
                  the mother of a great king who once ruled the area, and she
                  watches over and protects her people."
    338. <P68/2> Arthur - ? ? ? ? ? ?
                  (NA) Leo
                  (FR) Leo
                  (DE) Ras Odelepe
                  (ES) Arthur
                  (IT) Ras Odelepe
    Description: "This is the king of all leopard seals in the Weddell Sea. A
                  mysterious wisdom shines in hiseyes and he has the strength of a
                  veteran of countless battles. He is named after the legendary
                  King Arthur who was fabled for his courage, strength and honour."
    Trivia:      "[Leopard seal army]
                  The most powerful and daring of all the seals, leopard seals will
                  often act individually without needing to form a group. Recently,
                  observers in the Antarctic have reported leopard seals acting and
                  hunting as a group under the influence of a boss seal, almost
                  certainly Arthur."
    [11.69]  Page 69  - Other Fauna
    339. <P69/1> Snowy - ? ? ? ? ? ?
                  (NA) Snowball
                  (FR) Blanche
                  (DE) Schneeball
                  (ES) Blanca
                  (IT) Fiocco di neve
    Description: "Rockhopper penguins are normally clearly distinguished by their
                  two-tone colouring, so this albino female looks like she belongs
                  to a different species. Albinos are rare, but all the other
                  penguins in her group seem to support her despite her difference.
                  Hayako was the first to notice her, and she named the albino
                  Snowy and is following her progress."
    Trivia:      "[Albinos - sacred or evil?]
                  Albinism is caused by a genetic lack of melanin, which is needed
                  for pigmentation. In most cases this leads to eye problems such
                  as poor vision or over-sensitivity to light, and sometimes other
                  physical weaknesses. A lack of natural camouflage can also leave
                  albinos more vulnerable to predators. As albinos are so rare,
                  they have long been considered either as sacred or as evil
    340. <P69/2> Big Bobby - ? ? ? ? ? ?
                  (FR) Grand Bobby
                  (DE) Riesen-Rudi
                  (ES) Guille
                  (IT) Big Bobby
    Description: "Emperor penguins will normally reach around 100 - 130cm, but Big
                  Bobby has already grown to 170cm, as tall as an average human
                  male. Discovered about two years ago by an American winter
                  research team, he was called 'Fat Bob' at first before being
                  renamed 'Big Bobby'. He seems to have grown a little more this
                  year too."
    Trivia:      "[Extinct giant penguins]
                  Millions of years ago, there was a species of penguin larger than
                  those that live today. They were over 160cm tall and became
                  extinct about 40 million years ago. The largest confirmed penguin
                  fossils to date measure 170 - 180cm, but there were never any
                  dinosaur-sized penguins 10m tall."
    [11.70]  Page 70  - Other Fauna
    341. <P70/1> Kraken Jr - ? ? ? ? ? ?
                  (FR) Kraken junior
                  (DE) Karl Krakenson
                  (ES) Chopito
                  (IT) Piccolo Kraken
    Description: "A young giant squid, probably the child of the huge one that
                  lives at the bottom of the crevasse. It should be able to grow up
                  safely in the ruins where there are almost no natural predators.
                  So in ten or maybe even a hundred years, it may grow into the
                  monster of Zahhab, pulling its victims to their sad fate in the
    Trivia:      "[The Kraken]
                  One of the most famous of all unidentified sea monsters is the
                  Kraken. There are countless tales of giant octopi or squid
                  attacking ships, dating back hundreds of years. According to one
                  theory, tales of a greedy beast that breathes a foul stench do
                  refer to giant squid. A large percentage of a giant squid's body
                  is made up of ammonia, which explains its unique breath."
    [11.71]  Page 71  - Other Fauna
    342. <P71/1> Emperor - ? ? ? ? ? ?
                  (NA) Living Fossil
                  (FR) Empereur
                  (DE) Der Zar
                  (ES) Emperador
                  (IT) Imperatore
    Description: "This coelacanth is unbelievably large. Who knows how many years
                  it took to reach this impressive size? Looking at it makes you
                  feel the weight of the ages and even a sense of timelessness. The
                  feeling of solemnity leaves you in no doubt that this is the
                  emperor of those living fossils, the mighty coelacanths."
    Trivia:      "[Mysterious species]
                  The coelacanth was thought to have become extinct during the
                  Cretaceous period, 65 -140 million years ago. How was this fish
                  able to live through the worldwide extinction which wiped out the
                  dinosaurs, and then survive for tens of millions of years without
    [11.72]  Page 72  - Other Fauna
    343. <P72/1> Cocoa Maharaja - ? ? ? ? ? ?
                  (NA) Cacao Maharaja
                  (FR) Maharadjah de Cacao
                  (DE) Cocoa Maharaja
                  (ES) Maharajá de Koko
                  (IT) Grande Maharaja
    Description: "The leatherback is the largest turtle, and this is the largest
                  leatherback. The ship that first sighted and reported this giant
                  was the Cocoa Maharaja, and the turtle has somehow taken the same
                  name. Its friendly nature has made it extremely popular around
                  the southern seas of Paoul."
    Trivia:      "[Lucky turtle]
                  This turtle is so popular with the divers of the region that it
                  is featured in this year's Paoul guide book. The chances of
                  sighting Cocoa Maharaja are actually very slim, as it is only
                  sighted once a year even by the inhabitants of the local islands.
                  This has led to a rumour that anyone who sees the turtle will be
                  blessed with amazingly good luck."
    [11.73]  Page 73  - Other Fauna
    344. <P73/1> Thanatos - ? ? ? ? ? ?
                  (FR) Thanatos
                  (DE) Thanatos
                  (ES) Tánatos
                  (IT) Thanatos
    Description: "This enormous great white shark is feared throughout the Aegean
                  Sea, where it is seen as the embodiment of evil and violence. It
                  actively attacks people and boats and has caused a number of
                  brutal incidents. The many scars on its body are proof of the
                  countless battles it has fought, and its cunning has helped it to
                  evade all human attempts to ensnare it. This creature is a 
                  monster created by ferocious fighting and years of experience
                  which can be seen all over the world, but only rarely."
    Trivia:      "[Mother Nature's revenge?]
                  Normally, a great white shark would not go out of its way to
                  attack humans. Almost all attacks are the result of the shark
                  mistaking the person for a seal or some other creature it
                  considers food. That means shark attacks are rare, only a few
                  each year. But despite this, humans kill thousands of tons of
                  sharks every year to boast, or simply out of pure fear or
                  loathing. Is the emergence of a creature like Thanatos, which
                  hunts man alone, the revenge of Mother Nature?"
    [11.74]  Page 74  - Other Fauna
    345. <P74/1> Black Harbinger - ? ? ? ? ? ?
                  (FR) Sombre Présage
                  (DE) Schwarzes Omen
                  (ES) Pena Negra
                  (IT) Araldo Oscuro
    Description: "This large, jet black humpback whale can be seen in the Solomon
                  Islands. In Paoul legend, it stands in direct contrast to the
                  loving White Mother; where she grants new life, this whale spirit
                  is said to preside over death and the afterlife. At least one
                  hundred years old, every fishermen in the region knows about it
                  and it is considered the ruler of those seas. It seems to visit
                  Gatama Atoll in Paoul every few years, but no one knows why."
    Trivia:      "[Whale's requiem]
                  Where legends about the White Mother are positive, those of the
                  Black Harbinger are usually negative. His song is said to be
                  heartbreakingly sad, and is believed to be a requiem guiding the
                  souls of the dead. Because of this local fishermen will burn
                  their fishing tackle if they meet him while at sea, in an attempt
                  to ward off the fate of being led to the land of the dead."
    [11.75]  Page 75  - Other Fauna
    346. <P75/1> Leviathan - ? ? ? ? ? ?
                  (FR) Léviathan
                  (DE) Leviathan
                  (ES) Leviatán
                  (IT) Leviatano
    Description: "This albino sperm whale has a particularly violent temperament
                  and has been seen attacking and capsizing fishing boats. Known in
                  these waters as the White Terror, it is despised by local
                  residents. An old fisherman who pursued it reported seeing this
                  whale defeating an orca, normally its predator. Considering that
                  albinos are usually weaker than other members of a species,
                  you can see just how powerful and aggressive this animal is."
    Trivia:      "[The captain's grudge]
                  One captain in the Zahhab Sea has been hunting the White Terror
                  for years. He lost his only son when their boat was capsized by
                  Leviathan, and has been obsessed with hunting the white whale
                  ever since. But will his quest for revenge ever end?"
    [11.76]  Page 76  - Other Fauna
    347. <P76/1> White Mother - ? ? ? ? ? ?
                  (NA) Ancient Mother
                  (FR) Mère Blanche
                  (DE) Weiße Mutter
                  (ES) Madre Blanca
                  (IT) Madre Bianca
    Description: "A new species of baleen whale discovered a few years ago in the
                  Manaurai Sea of Paoul, South Pacific, attracting attention from
                  all over the world. There is little known about its ecology and
                  behaviour, although your recent discovery shows that it migrates
                  from the South Pacific to the North Pole and back again. Its
                  scientific name is also yet to be decided."
    Trivia:      "[Twilight of the sacred mother]
                  This whale, known as the sacred and loving White Mother, has been
                  worshipped as the origin of all life in Paoul since ancient
                  times. Searching for her, harming her or hunting for her were
                  seen as blasphemy. But since she was confirmed to really exist
                  these beliefs started to fade away. Souvenir shops in Paoul's
                  capital have already started marketing White Mother merchandise."
    [11.77]  Page 77  - Other Fauna
    348. <P77/1> Singing Dragon - ? ? ? ? ? ?
                  (FR) Dragon Criant
                  (DE) Singender Drache
                  (ES) Melodía de dragón
                  (IT) Custode del Canto
    Description: "This is the pure white whale seen in the ruins in the Cavern of
                  the Gods. Although it looks like a small humpback whale, it is in
                  fact an unknown species. It might even be a descendant of the
                  whales that the Okeanides once controlled."
    Trivia:      "[The Song of Dragons]
                  Whale song is composed of repeated, altered complex patterns of
                  sound, so if the Song of Dragons is whale song how can it be the
                  same all over the world? One theory holds that whales have their
                  own.'civilisation'. Killer whales in the same pod have similar
                  hunting techniques, and all the humpback whales in a pod use the
                  same scales for singing, so perhaps the Song of Dragons is a song
                  so old it was passed down from ancient times and transmitted to
                  whales everywhere."
    [11.78]  Page 78  - Other Fauna
    349. <P78/1> Okeanos' Guardian - ? ? ? ? ? ?
                  (NA) Okeanos's Guardian
                  (FR) Gardien d'Okéanos
                  (DE) Der Finstere Hüter
                  (ES) Guardián de Oceanis
                  (IT) Guardiano di Okeanos
    Description: "The large goblin shark you encountered in the Cavern of the Gods,
                  which rules over others of its ferocious kind living in these
                  historic ruins. It is said to resemble Ammit, a creature from
                  Egyptian mythology. These sharks may have been bred by the ancient
                  Okeanides, with this specimen a descendant of those
                  selectively-bred creatures."
    Trivia:      "[Guardian of the Underworld]
                  Ammit is a monster from ancient Egyptian mythology with the head
                  of a crocodile and the body of a lion. It was chained at the side
                  of Anubis, the god who judged the dead in the underworld. Souls
                  which failed his test were given to Ammit, who personified divine
    [11.79]  Page 79  - Other Fauna
    350. <P79/1> Sea serpent - ? ? ? ? ? ?
                  (FR) Serpent de mer
                  (DE) Seeschlange
                  (ES) Serpiente marina
                  (IT) Mostro marino
    Description: "A gigantic plesiosaur? If it really is one, this aquatic reptile
                  survived extinction in the Cretaceous period. But nothing is
                  known for certain, and it's possible that people just imagined
                  seeing it."
    Trivia:      "[Unidentified Marine Animals]
                  There have been thousands of reports of dinosaurs or snakes
                  lurking in the ocean depths since the beginning of the 20th
                  century. One of these was an animal resembling a plesiosaur
                  found in the waters off New Zealand in 1977. It was dubbed the
                  New Nessie as its corpse looked like that of a dinosaur. It was
                  also said to be the remains of a basking shark, but nobody knows
                  for sure."
    1.0 Oct 2011                        - corrected Black Pyramid/Purple Tang error
    0.1 Feb 2010                         - 350 creatures, in-game text, FR,DE,ES,IT
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